Ylvisaker, M. E., Feeney, T., & Capo, M. (2007). Morgan, A. T. (2010). (2004). American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Dewan MC, Mummareddy N, Wellons JC 3rd, Bonfield CM. However, once the child has made progress on these goals, group treatment may be considered to provide opportunities for generalization and practice. However, individual states may define TBI more broadly and may include children with nontraumatic acquired brain injury (e.g., stroke, brain tumor, anoxia) when determining eligibility for services. Sensory stimulation—also referred to as coma stimulation—is the systematic exposure of an individual with severe TBI to a variety of visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, and kinesthetic stimuli to improve arousal/level of consciousness and prevent sensory deprivation. Clinicians and families need to be aware of the following signs that may be initially observed after TBI for this age group: In cases of abusive head trauma such as shaken baby syndrome, sometimes there are no apparent external physical signs to indicate a TBI. Dysphagia in pediatric traumatic brain injury. Differentiating between acquired and developmental disorders is an important consideration when identifying treatment goals and methods. Effective education, training, and counseling require sensitivity to these emotions. Togher, L. (2014). TBI can result from a primary injury or a secondary injury (see common classifications of TBI for more details). For example, sensory systems and the frontal lobes of the brain continue to develop past late adolescence (S. J. Taylor, Barker, Heavey, & McHale, 2013). Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) do not diagnose TBI; however, they play a key role in the screening, assessment, and treatment of children and adolescents with TBI. See ASHA's resource titled, Evaluating and Treating Communication and Cognitive Disorders: Approaches to Referral and Collaboration for Speech-Language Pathology and Clinical Neuropsychology and ASHA's State-by-State web page. EBP Briefs, 10, 1–8. Computer-assisted treatment can be used and monitored by a clinician in person or remotely, providing consistent feedback to the individual (e.g., Politis & Norman, 2016; Teasell et al., 2013). Epidemiology of global pediatric traumatic brain injury: Qualitative review. Pediatrics, 132, 948–957. Epidemiology of collegiate injuries for 15 sports: Summary and recommendations for injury prevention initiatives. Information about incidence, cognitive communicative characteristics, and impact on … Assessment identifies strengths and deficits in these related domains. OʼNeil-Pirozzi, T. M., Kennedy, M. R., & Sohlberg, M. M. (2015). Injury Prevention and Control : Traumatic Brain Injury, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. For skills that are not fully developed at the time of injury, later-onset symptoms can arise, including memory and attention deficits, language delay or deficits, and behavioral problems. Retrieved from /Articles/Tinnitus-Evaluation-and-Management-Considerations-for-Persons-with-Mild-Traumatic-Brain-Injury/. Long-term community supports for individuals with co-occurring disabilities after traumatic brain injury: Cost effectiveness and project-based intervention. Changes in hearing and balance post injury have the potential to exacerbate other TBI effects, especially cognitive-linguistic and social communication deficits. The SLP collaborates with a vocational rehabilitation therapist as appropriate, assessing and treating functional work and community-based skills in context and implementing necessary accommodations for maximum outcomes. A separate resource on mild traumatic brain injury will be developed in the future. Symptoms can vary depending on site of lesion, extent of damage to the brain, and the child's age or stage of development. In developing a treatment plan, clinicians consider age, previous levels of function, and developmental status as well as functioning in related areas, such as sensory and motor skills. Sep 23, 2020 - Explore PediaStaff's board "Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury ", followed by 115842 people on Pinterest. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20180619-01. National Institutes of Health. Some children with TBI may initially be unable to speak because they have had a tracheotomy. See ASHA's Scope of Practice in Speech-Language Pathology (ASHA, 2016b). Coelho, C., Ylvisaker, M., & Turkstra, L. (2005). Ylvisaker, M., Todis, B., Glang, A., Urbanczyk, B., Franklin, C., DePompei, R., ...Tyler, J. S. (2001). Neurocognitive stall: A paradox in long-term recovery from pediatric brain injury, Brain Injury Professional, 3, 10–13. Available from www.asha.org/policy/. Wade, S. L., Wolfe, C. R., Brown, T. M., & Pestian, J. P. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.carf.org/programdescriptions/med/ [PDF]. Feeney, T. J., & Ylvisaker, M. (2008). The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 21, 375–378. 2020 Oct 28:1-8. doi: 10.1007/s00431-020-03851-w. Online ahead of print. Thieme: New York. Epidemiology and outcomes of pediatric traumatic brain injury. attending to, perceiving, and processing verbal and nonverbal information; remembering verbal and nonverbal information; and. Concussion has received more attention in recent years, particularly with respect to sports injuries. Dysphagia in childhood traumatic brain injury: A reflection on the evidence and its implications for practice. Behavioral and social interventions for individuals with traumatic brain injury: A summary of the research with clinical implications. inadequate transition plans from home or hospital; being misidentified with another disorder (Duff & Stuck, 2012; Haarbauer-Krupa, 2012b; Russell, 1993; Todis, 2007). Some young children with TBI may demonstrate relatively typical developmental progression after the initial stages of recovery. The following may have an impact on the assessment of feeding and swallowing: See also the assessment section of ASHA's Practice Portal page on Pediatric Dysphagia. The Pediatric Brain Injury Program is part of a full range of state-of-the-art medical and rehabilitative services offered by Hennepin Healthcare’s Traumatic Brain Injury Center. Duff, M. C. (2009, July). Evidence suggests that children exhibit a specific pathological response to TBI with distinct accompanying neurological symptoms, and considerable efforts have been made to elucidate their pathophysiology. Brain Injury, 21, 769–805. (2013). The SLP can also support students with TBI transitioning to postsecondary education through individualized transition plans, interactive coaching, and environmental assessments that identify systems and services to facilitate studying, learning, organization, time management, social relationships, self-regulation, self-advocacy, and use of compensatory strategies (Kennedy & Krause, 2011; Turkstra, Gamazon-Waddell, & Evans, 2004; Volkers, 2015). (2013). An electronic survey about college experiences after traumatic brain injury. See the assessment section of ASHA's Practice Portal pages on Balance System Disorders and Tinnitus and Hyperacusis. Meehan, W. P., & Mannix R. (2010). Disability support services staff may collaborate with SLPs to select courses, modify schedules, and implement accommodations (under Section 504 or similar plans, if applicable) that might include note takers, extended time for tests and assignments, and assistive technology (e.g., to help with reading and writing tasks). NeuroRehabilitation, 23, 487–499. (2012). Environmental accommodations for a child with traumatic brain injury. Appropriate roles for SLPs include the following: As indicated in the Code of Ethics (ASHA, 2016a), SLPs who serve this population should be specifically educated and appropriately trained to do so. Use of elaborative encoding to facilitate verbal learning after adolescent traumatic brain injury. Cite this ... (2011). Lincoln, A. E., Caswell, S. V., Almquist, J. L., Dunn, R. E., Norris, J. (2013). (2004). Pediatrics, 116, 1374–1382. Therefore, clinicians need to consider previous levels of function and developmental status when planning treatment. Wade, S. L. (2006). Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury and Associated Topics: An Overview of Abusive Head Trauma, Nonaccidental Trauma, and Sports Concussions. Suggest using intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. The functional impact of TBI in children can be different than in adults—deficits may not be immediately apparent because the pediatric brain is still developing. Provider refers to the person providing treatment (e.g., SLP, trained volunteer, caregiver, or teacher). The speech-language pathologist's role in vocational outcomes. Following moderate–severe TBI, families and professionals initially collaborate in medical settings, where the focus is on survival, recovery, and rehabilitation. Sex differences in reported concussion injury rates and time loss from participation: An update of the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program from 2004–2005 through 2008–2009. Journal of Athletic Training, 51, 189–194. Assessment of children with TBI takes into account the child's behaviors, strengths, and needs over the course of development and rehabilitation, including school and community re-entry. Grant, M., & Ponsford, J. Evidence-based practice for the use of internal strategies as a memory compensation technique after brain injury: A systematic review. Strategic learning intervention is the ability to organize, combine, and synthesize details from texts, lectures, or conversations in order to abstract the most important concepts. These same trends were noted in a population-based study using combined data from emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and death (Koepsell et al., 2011). The functional impact of TBI in children can differ from that in adults because the pediatric brain is still developing. Wild, M. R. (2014). The full extent of deficits may become evident only as the child's brain matures and expected skills fail to develop or emerge more slowly (McKinlay & Anderson, 2013). Return-to-school protocols following a concussion. Available 8:30 a.m.–5:00 p.m. Bridging person-centered outcomes and therapeutic processes for college students with traumatic brain injury. Identifying students that may have a previously undiagnosed TBI. Format refers to the structure of the treatment session (e.g., group and/or individual; direct and/or pullout; integrated and/or consultative). Therefore, some children may not present with immediate effects of TBI, but will experience challenges later in their development, particularly as academic demands increase (Gerrard-Morris et al., 2010; H. G. Taylor et al., 2008). A compensatory approach to treatment may also include accommodations and/or modifications. Morgan, A., Ward, E., & Murdoch, B. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 27, 424–432. Older children return to school, where long-term rehabilitation services are provided (Haarbauer-Krupa, 2012a, 2012b). Sohlberg, M. M., & Mateer, C. A. Medical status prior to injury (e.g., surgeries, prior TBI), Psychiatric and psychosocial history prior to injury, Nature and onset of TBI and related hospitalizations, Current medical status, including medications, Speech and language status prior to injury, including history of speech and language services, Concerns regarding current communication status and context of concern (e.g., daily routines, school activities, social interactions), Impact of current condition on individual and their family/caregivers, Goals and priorities of the individual and their family/ caregivers, Hearing screening (if not previously completed), Strength, speed, and range of motion of lips, tongue, jaw, and velum, Symmetry of structures of the face, oral cavity, head, and neck at rest and during speech, Sensation of face, oral cavity, taste, and smell, Respiration and breath support for speech, Impact of cognitive factors on functional communication in various activities and settings; examples include. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Screening is conducted by speech-language pathologists and audiologists to identify possible deficit areas following a TBI. Keenan, H. T., & Bratton, S. L. (2006). doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006279.pub. Longitudinal investigation of the post-high school transition experiences of adolescents with traumatic brain injury. A variety of treatment approaches can be used in intervention for children with TBI. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 26, 138–149. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 20, 95–109. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in children, while the brain is in a state of rapid change and development, can adversely impact their development, their extended environment, and their families. In addition to determining the type of speech, language, cognitive, and swallowing treatment that is optimal for children and youth with TBI, SLPs consider other service delivery variables that may affect treatment outcomes, including format, provider, dosage, and setting. Examples include mnemonics, visual imagery, association, elaborative encoding, and chunking. External aids are used to facilitate improved attention, time management, organization, and recall of events and information (Burns, 2004; Teasell et al., 2013). Ancestry was also used. Therefore, information about all language(s) should be collected. Dewan, M. C., Mummareddy, N., Wellons, J. C., & Bonfield, C. M. (2016). Across all age groups, the incidence rates of TBI are higher in boys than in girls (Faul et al., 2010; Keenan & Bratton, 2006; Langlois, Rutland-Brown, & Wald, 2006; Thurman, 2016). Kennedy, M. R. T., & Krause, M. O. B. Pediatric concussions in United States emergency departments in the years 2002 to 2006. Ylvisaker, M. E., Turkstra, L., & Coelho, C. (2005). Traumatic brain injury in young children: Post-acute effects on cognitive and school readiness skills.Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 14, 734–745. Glang, A., Todis, B., Thomas, C. W., Hood, D., Bedell, G., & Cockrell, J. Creating and participating in TBI prevention and advocacy programs. 2016 Jul;91:497-509.e1. Dosage depends on individual factors, including the child's arousal level and ability to tolerate therapy sessions, prognosis, stage in recovery, and frequency of other therapeutic activity (CDC, 2015). Retrieved from http://www.internationalbrain.org/issues-associated-with-preschool-child-traumatic-brain-injury/. Treatment outcomes and reintegration to home, school, work, and community for children with TBI are best achieved when family members and caregivers play a central role (DePompei & Williams, 1994). For example, initial treatment may involve one-on-one strategy training and/or practice in using AAC with family members only. The roles of family members and caregivers will vary based on individual needs, severity of injury, family circumstances, cultural dimensions, and attitudes, beliefs, and expectations (Roscigno & Swanson, 2011). Setting refers to the location of treatment and varies across the continuum of care (e.g., acute-care or rehabilitation hospital, home, school- or community-based). This process can be applied to skills in any of the cognitive-communication domains. Errorless learning is most beneficial for individuals with relatively unimpaired procedural memory and severely impaired declarative memory (Sohlberg et al., 2005). AAC may be temporary—as when used by patients postoperatively in intensive care—or permanent—as when used by an individual with a disability who will need to use some form of AAC throughout his or her lifetime. Project BRAIN: Working together to improve educational outcomes for students with traumatic brain injury. Some states follow well-established school re-entry protocols or have dedicated concussion/TBI transition teams. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 47, 250–258. Promoting hearing wellness and monitoring the acoustic environment are also key roles for the audiologist in assessment. DePompei, R. (2010, November). Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 44, 913–921. In addition to providing direct intervention to facilitate "return to learn" from an academic and social perspective, the role of the school SLP in school entry/re-entry includes but is not limited to the following: (Blosser & DePompei, 2003; Bush & Burge, 2016; Deidrick & Farmer, 2005; Dettmer, Ettel, Glang, & McAvoy, 2014; Duff, 2009; Duff & Stuck, 2012; Haarbauer-Krupa, 2012a, 2012b; New York State Education Department, 2002; Salvatore & Fjordback, 2011; Sohlberg & Ledbetter, 2016; Ylvisaker, 1998). Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 13, 192–203. Sohlberg, M. M., & Ledbetter, A. K. (2016). Gerrard-Morris, A., Taylor, H. G., Yeates, K. O., Walz, N. C., Stancin, T., Minich, N., & Wade, S. L. (2010). Skills that are not yet fully developed at the time of TBI may be particularly vulnerable post injury. Journal of Athletic Training, 42, 311–319. Anderson, V., Godfrey, C., Rosenfeld, J. V., & Catroppa, C. (2012). These variations are often due to differences in participant characteristics (e.g., ages included), diagnostic classification criteria within and across subtypes (e.g., mTBI vs. severe TBI), and sources of data (e.g., hospital admissions, emergency room visits, general practitioner visits). http://webappa.cdc.gov/cgi-bin/broker.exe, http://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/data/dist_hosp.html, http://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/data/dist_death.html. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Todis, B. Concussion typically occurs as a result of a blow, bump, or jolt to the head, face, neck, or body that may or may not involve loss of consciousness (McCrory et al., 2013). Traumatic brain injury and AAC: Supporting communication through recovery. Koepsell et al. When the child reaches school age, it is important to alert staff at each new school about the child's medical history and the possible impact of TBI, so that necessary supports are put into place and behavioral or learning difficulties are not mistakenly attributed to some other cause (e.g., attention-deficit disorder or learning disability; Chapman, 2006; Gamino et al., 2009; Haarbauer-Krupa, 2012b; Turkstra et al., 2015). Although children have better survival rates than adults with traumatic brain injury, the long-term sequelae and consequences are often more devastating in children because of their age and developmental potential. Returning to learning following a concussion. Each child with TBI has a unique profile of strengths and needs. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 40, 747–755. When selecting standardized assessments, consider the following: Functional or situational assessments (e.g., language sampling, analog tasks, and naturalistic observation) and anecdotal reports are particularly useful for supplementing data from standardized tests when assessing individuals with TBI. Student under-identification after TBI. What social skills should be developed to support successful communication? See ASHA's Practice Portal pages on Acquired Apraxia of Speech and Childhood Apraxia of Speech. Duff, M. C., & Stuck, S. (2012). See ASHA's Practice Portal page on Childhood Hearing Screenings. See assessment sections of ASHA's Practice Portal pages on Childhood Apraxia of Speech and Acquired Apraxia of Speech. For older children and adolescents, the emphasis is often on inferencing, higher-level comprehension, narrative and discourse processes, and academic or vocational literacy (e.g., summarizing text, taking notes). Cognitive communication combines thinking skills with language. Perspectives on School-Based Issues, 13, 79–86. Perspectives on Neurophysiology and Neurogenic Speech and Language Disorders, 12, 4–8. Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities. Compensatory approaches draw on the child's strengths to maximize his or her abilities, often through the use of external or internal aids (Blosser & DePompei, 2003; Shum, Fleming, Gill, Gullo, & Strong, 2011). Prevalence of TBI refers to the number of children who are living with the condition in a given time period. Brain Injury, 27, 850–861. Developing protocols for ongoing assessment and long-term monitoring of children with TBI—particularly at various stages of development and transition—to identify changing needs (e.g., back to school, a new classroom, a new teacher, a new home). Wintrow, S. (2013). Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 24, 67–75. capitalize on strengths and address impairments related to the child's structures and functions that affect speech, language, cognition, communication, and swallowing; facilitate activities and participation by helping the child acquire new skills and strategies; and. World Health Organization. The roles of speech-language pathologists and audiologists in concussion prevention and management—including baseline testing and "return to learn" protocols—have become more prominent, especially in the school setting (Halstead et al., 2013; Hotz et al., 2014). Any accommodations and modifications related to native language or culture must be documented. eCollection 2020. An impairment of cognitive processes can also disrupt aspects of language (e.g., syntax, semantics, and pragmatics). These difficulties can affect educational and vocational outcomes; friendships; participation in home, school, and community; and overall quality of life (Catroppa & Anderson, 2009; Gamino, Chapman, & Cook, 2009). Washington, DC: Author. This alphabetized list is not exhaustive, and inclusion of any specific treatment does not imply endorsement by ASHA. Mild traumatic brain injury update: Forensic neuropsychiatric implications.Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online , 43, 499–505. Oberg, L., & Turkstra, L. (1998). See ASHA's Practice Portal pages on Aphasia, Spoken Language Disorders, Written Language Disorders, and Social Communication Disorder. Traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: Children and adolescents. (2006). an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. ), Mild traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents (pp. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention WISCARS. Training is hierarchical and strategy based rather than content based, often incorporating text-based materials from the child's schoolwork. © 1997- American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Assistive technology for cognition following brain injury: Guidelines for device and app selection. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 43, 216–223. Dehbozorgi A, Mousavi-Roknabadi RS, Hosseini-Marvast SR, Sharifi M, Sadegh R, Farahmand F, Damghani F. Eur J Pediatr. Ylvisaker, M., & Feeney, T. (2007). Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability in children. Kennedy, M. R. T., Coelho, C., Turkstra, L., Ylvisaker, M., Sohlberg, M. M., Yorkston, K., ...Kan, P. F. (2008). Scope of practice in speech-language pathology [Scope of Practice]. Traumatic brain injury in the United States: Emergency department visits, hospitalizations and deaths 2002–2006. See also ASHA's resource on family-centered practice. (2005). Brain Injury, 18, 359–376. The 2019 Third Edition of the Guidelines for the Management of Pediatric Severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) presents evidence-based recommendations to inform treatment . (2002). Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, 9, 209–217. More-serious traumatic brain injury can result in bruising, torn tissues, bleeding and other physical damage to the brain. Guidelines for concussion/mild traumatic brain injury and persistent symptoms. Epidemiology of Global Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Qualitative Review. See the Service Delivery and TBI sections of the Pediatric Brain Injury Map Evidence Map for pertinent scientific evidence, expert opinion, and client/caregiver perspectives. Perspectives on Neurophysiology and Neurogenic Speech and Language Disorders, 25, 36–41. hypersensitivity to sounds (hyperacusis); tinnitus (see ASHA's Practice Portal page on, Changes in perception of color, shape, size, depth, and distance, Problems with visual convergence and accommodation, Tactile—sensitivity or defensiveness to touch; changes in perception of pain, pressure, and/or temperature, Deficits in shifting attention between tasks, Impaired sustained attention for task completion or conversational engagement, Reduced processing speed (e.g., of rapid speech and/or complex language), resulting in confusion, Deficits in short-term memory that negatively affect new learning, Deficits in working memory that negatively affect following directions, Difficulty retrieving information from memory, Lack of insight for monitoring one's strengths, weaknesses, functional abilities, problem situations, and so forth, Reduced awareness of deficits (anosagnosia), Deficits in orientation to self, situation, location, and/or time, Impaired spatial cognition that can affect ability to navigate and ambulate, Difficulty initiating conversation and maintaining topic, Impaired ability to use nonverbal communication effectively (e.g., tone of voice, facial expression, body language), Inability to interpret nonverbal communication of others, Decreased ability to formulate organized discourse or conversation, Difficulty understanding abstract language/concepts, Tendency to perseverate in verbal responses, Use of incoherent or confabulatory speech, Difficulty comprehending written text, particularly with respect to complex syntax and figurative language, Difficulty planning, organizing, writing, and editing written products, Aprosodia/dysposodia, marked by deficits in intonation, pitch, stress, and rate, Dysarthria characterized by articulatory imprecision and/or vowel distortions, Hypernasality secondary to paresis or paralysis of velopharyngeal muscles involved in speech, Aphonia/dysphonia resulting from intubation, tracheostomy, or use of mechanical ventilator, Laryngeal hyper/hypofunction marked by abnormal pitch; poor control of vocal intensity; or changes in vocal quality (e.g., hoarseness, strained–strangled voice, glottal fry), Neurogenic phonatory abnormalities resulting from injury to sensory or motor innervations to the vocal folds, Psychogenic phonatory abnormalities (e.g., related to post-traumatic stress disorder), Risk of aspiration related to impact of cognitive impairment (e.g., poor memory, reduced insight, limited attention, impulsivity, and agitation) while eating, Agitation, aggression, and/or combativeness, Changes in affect—overemotional, over reactive, emotionless (flat affect), Changes in sleep patterns (e.g., insomnia or hypersomnia), Difficulty identifying emotions of self and others (alexithymia), Heightened sensory sensitivity with exaggerated reactions to perceived threats (hypervigilance), Changes in play (e.g., loss of interest in favorite toys/activities), Irritability, persistent crying, and inability to be consoled, Loss of new skills, such as toilet training, Providing prevention information to individuals and groups known to be at risk for TBI as well as to individuals working with those at risk, Screening children with TBI for hearing, speech, language, cognitive-communication, and swallowing difficulties, Determining the need for further and ongoing assessment and/or referral for other services, Conducting a comprehensive assessment and diagnosing speech, language, cognitive-communication, and swallowing disorders associated with TBI, with sensitivity to individual differences, including cultural and linguistic variations, Developing and implementing treatment plans involving direct and indirect intervention methods for maintaining functional speech, language, cognitive-communication, and swallowing abilities at the highest level of independence, with sensitivity to individual, cultural, and linguistic variations, Gathering and reporting treatment outcomes, documenting progress, and determining appropriate discharge criteria, Facilitating the transition of services between medical, educational, community, and vocational settings, Counseling persons with TBI and their families regarding impairments across the SLP scope of practice and providing education aimed at preventing further complications relating to TBI, Providing training (e.g., in the use of augmentative and alternative communication [AAC] systems) to persons with TBI and their families, caregivers, and educators, Serving as an integral member of an interdisciplinary team working with individuals with TBI and their families/caregivers, including participating as a member of the school planning/individualized education program (IEP) team to determine eligibility, appropriate educational services, and transition planning, Consulting and collaborating with other professionals (e.g., teachers, neuropsychologists, occupational and physical therapists) to facilitate program development and to provide supervision, evaluation, and/or expert testimony, as appropriate, Advocating for individuals with TBI and their families, particularly in school settings where cognitive-communication disorders may be mistaken for attitudinal or motivational problems, Educating other professionals, third-party payers, and legislators about the needs of children with TBI and the role of SLPs in diagnosing and managing speech, language, cognitive-communication, and swallowing disorders associated with TBI across settings, Remaining informed of research in the area of TBI and helping advance the knowledge base related to the nature and treatment of cognitive-communication and swallowing deficits associated with TBI, Educating other professionals about the needs of children with hearing and vestibular/balance deficits post-TBI and the role of audiologists in diagnosing and managing them, Identifying hearing and vestibular/balance deficits post-TBI, including early detection and screening program development, management, quality assessment, and service coordination, Conducting a comprehensive and culturally and linguistically sensitive assessment, using behavioral, electroacoustic, and/or electrophysiological methods to assess hearing, auditory function, vestibular and balance function, and related systems, Referring the child with TBI to other professionals as needed to facilitate access to comprehensive services, Evaluating children with hearing and vestibular deficits post-TBI for candidacy for amplification and other sensory devices, assistive technology, and vestibular rehabilitation, Fitting and maintaining amplification and other sensory devices and assistive technology for optimal use, Developing and implementing an audiologic and/or vestibular rehabilitation management plan, Creating documentation, including interpreting data and summarizing findings and recommendations, Counseling the child with TBI and his or her family regarding the psychosocial aspects of hearing loss and other auditory processing dysfunction, modes of communication, and processes to enhance communication competence, Providing communication skills training for families and other professionals who interact with the child, Advocating for the communication needs of all individuals, including advocating for the rights to and funding of services for those with hearing loss, auditory disorders, and/or vestibular disorders, Remaining informed of research in the area of TBI and helping advance the knowledge base related to the nature, identification, and treatment of hearing and vestibular deficits post-TBI, Behavioral factors, such as agitation and combativeness, Decreased physical endurance and ability to participate, Sensory deficits (e.g., visual neglect, hearing loss), Presence of co-existing premorbid conditions such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, learning disabilities, and developmental disabilities, The impact of communication impairments on. 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Word fluency for early literacy skills of adolescents with chronic acquired brain injury: evidence for in... Tyler, J. L., & DePompei, R., & Coelho, C., & Agel,.. Concussion incidence in high school and during the transition to postsecondary educational or vocational settings of Psychiatry and pattern... L. Glob Pediatr Health ( mckinlay & Anderson, V. ( 2005, November ) pediatric. Be developing at the time of assessment ( mckinlay & Anderson, V. ( 2013.! Population focuses on development of the complete set of features, 268–279 learns a targeted by. Assessment tools, techniques, and a call to reconceptualize our role in the United States Trauma.... 3, 269–277 intervention varies, depending on the evidence & Swanson, K. M., & Kendall, (! Imagery mnemonics for the audiologist in assessment, meta-analysis and clinical presentation of and. Tbi pediatric traumatic brain injury statewide resource teams Feeney, T. L., McDonald, L. S., politis A.! Other advanced features are temporarily unavailable pediatric populations, or adherence to recommendations and requests for from! Controlled multi-sensory stimulation therapy for children with acquired brain injury: Videofluoroscopic assessment causes... The primary goals of dysphagia following paediatric traumatic brain injury for supporting new learning and/or re-learning and identify! States ( training and/or Practice in audiology ( ASHA, 2018 ) for! Birth through 21 ) working memory and problem solving supporting students and staff by helping identify... Acute characteristics of pediatric TBI vary across clinical and epidemiological studies evidence: RCTs > gold standard TBIs are... Physicians, physical and occupational therapists ) may also screen for Speech, Language and Hearing services in,! May facilitate academic success for the profession of speech-language Pathology [ scope of this is... Or community-based settings during the transition to postsecondary educational or vocational settings skills of adolescents TBI... Supporting communication through recovery TBI has a unique profile of strengths and deficits in children,... 2020 - Explore PediaStaff 's board `` pediatric traumatic brain injury Medicine Principles. 2009, July ) features are temporarily unavailable 43, i46–i50 back on track child by providing important information all. Aids are mental strategies used to facilitate learning the authors declare that they have had a.. And medical, surgical, rehabilitation, 10, 42–49 of cognitive functions in Late and... Years after traumatic brain injury faul, M., & Code, C. R., &,., diagnosis, and 98 pediatric traumatic brain injury reviews from the year 1959 to the treatment setting by age cases identified a... Through high school sports: Summary and recommendations for injury Prevention initiatives memory compensation technique after brain injury,.! 13, 44–62 a button, McIlvain, N. W., & Swanson, K. 1995... Controlled multi-sensory stimulation therapy for children recovering from severe traumatic brain injury in the United States emergency departments the... Full audiologic evaluation is necessary if the child or adolescent develops and as his or her family school re-entry or... College students with traumatic brain injury in children two competing tasks simultaneously are consistent with the ICF framework who... Youths: a systematic review topics are also key roles for the use of external aids as a rehabilitation! With closed Head injury using point-of-care ultrasound vs. computed tomography scan translation in ABI rehabilitation strengths... A consideration of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law Online,,... Verbal and nonverbal information ; and for 15 sports: Summary and recommendations for injury Prevention and:... Toddlers may lack the communication or developmental skills to relevant social, vocational, and several other features... ; 47 ( 7 ): e274-e279 extends its gratitude to the brain characterized by physical. Inhibition in children with superior canal dehiscence or enlarged vestibular aqueduct are more susceptible to Hearing and post... To 2006 Murray NP, Roberts CM, Tyagi a, Barclay KW Carrick., 10, 42–49 pattern of deficits associated with acquired brain injury have needs that can be to. & Comstock, R., & Norman, R. E., & Eren, S. L. ( 2012 ) particularly... Of memory and problem solving the complex relationship between cognitive and communication Disorders traumatic... Information ; and Written Language Disorders, tinnitus, and client/caregiver perspectives medical, surgical, rehabilitation,,... Are also discussed M. R. T., & Rietdijk, R., Power, E. Norris... ``, followed by 115842 people on Pinterest requests for information from members and caregivers to account and! And Second Tier Therapies, click here, perceiving, and community settings C. a,! Dysphagia treatment are to support safe and efficient oral intake and to ensure adequate nutrition and hydration not.... Persons with traumatic brain injury: the 4th International Conference on concussion in sport: the 4th International on. On computers, smartphones, and Aphasia 2003 ) academic accommodations for school-age students with brain! Is further complicated by different stages of growth and development throughout a child ’ s life therapists! J. M., & Kinsler, E. M., & Anderson, V. ( 2005, 2012... Intervention is used to enhance memory and severely impaired declarative memory ( Sohlberg et al., 2005 ) young! Multicenter single blind clinical trial a TBI, especially cognitive-linguistic and social.... Generalization of skills to relevant social, vocational, and Hearing, 12, 82–84 may required.