If the Brahmins gave up beef-eating and the non-Brahmins imitated them why did the Broken Men not do the same? Why did they, as an extreme step, give up meat eating altogether and become vegetarians? This is not the place for describing the full story of the struggle. The same would have been the case if they had followed the rules observed by the Buddhist Bhikshus in the matter of meat-eating. The Gayatri Purana is a piece of this propaganda. Secondly, it was unnecessary for them to become vegetarians. was published in Beef, Brahmins, and Broken Men on page 199. We have no positive evidence to show that members of the Settled Community never ate the flesh of the dead cow. Ambedkar's conclusions, based on an analysis of various religious texts, will seem more than deeply ironical to anyone who studies contemporary India, for the father of Indian Constitution argued that Brahmins who once had no compunctions against slaughter of animals, including cows, and were the greatest beef-eaters themselves, not only gave up beef-eating but also started worshipping the cow as a deliberate strategy. Why did they, as an extreme step, give up meat eating altogether and become vegetarians? These animals are given antibiotics to prevent disease caused by their living conditions and to promote weight gain. It is unnecessary to enlarge upon the subject further. This defines the scope of religion. THE stoppage of beef-eating by the Brahmins and the non-Brahmins and the continued use thereof by the Broken Men had produced a situation which was different from the old. The Vedanta Sutra which proclaims the doctrine of oneness of life does not prohibit the killing of animals for sacrificial purposes as is evident from II.1.28. One may eat meat when it has been sprinkled with water, while Mantras were recited, when Brahmanas desire (one’s doing it), when one is engaged (in the performance of a rite) according to the law, and when one’s life is in danger. Why Should Beef-Eating Make Broken Men Untouchables? Why did the Brahmins become vegetarian? B.R. Another explanation more ingenious than the first, is that this transformation in the life of the Brahmin was due to the rise of the doctrine of the Transmigration of the Soul. At first, it was an experiment to see how I felt, healthwise. What do the scriptures, Vedas etc say about Bramins? Move smoothly between articles as our pages load instantly. The answer is that if beef-eating had remained a secular affair – a mere matter of individual taste – such a bar between those who ate beef and those who did not would not have arisen. All that one can do is to respect and obey. From the survey of the Census Commissioner, it is well established that Untouchables eat beef. The second question is relevant, if not crucial. Buddhism had made so deep an impression on the minds of the masses and had taken such a hold of them that it was absolutely impossible for the Brahmins to fight the Buddhists except by accepting their ways and means and practising the Buddhist creed in its extreme form. In this context it is not far-fetched to suggest that those who have a nausea against beef-eating should treat those who eat beef as Untouchables. Brahmins, who had overcome the challenge of Buddhism, increasingly became vegetarian, along with the Banias (who were strongly influenced by the Jains). The Touchables whether they are vegetarians or flesh-eaters are united in their objection to eat cow’s flesh. What the King did was merely to confirm them. Why then did the Brahmins give up meat-eating and become vegetarians? Let the Brahmins answer that question. Asoka was interested in the sanctity of all life human as well as animal. Buddhism could not itself influence its followers to adhere to the idea of total ahimsa as most Buddhists from the times of the Buddha until today are meat eaters. …The giving up of the yajna system and abandonment of the sacrifice of the cow could have had only a limited effect. For it completely marks off the Touchables from the Untouchables. Examining the legislation of Asoka the question is: Did he prohibit the killing of the cow? For in this case, Veda Vyas does explain the cause of untouchability. To quote Prof Durkhiem again: “Sacred things are those which the interdictions protect and isolate; profane things, those to which these interdictions are applied and which must remain at a distance from the first.”. Many are forced to live in overcrowded, inhumane conditions before they are killed. The Brahmins followed it. What could the Brahmins do to recover the lost ground? Many people expect him to have come forward to prohibit the killing of the cow. Why Did Non-Brahmins Give Up Beef-Eating? PART IV. Not all Bengali Brahmins eat fish. But that doesn’t last long. At the outset I would say that Brahmins of yore did eat, rather taste, meat, even beef, as part of Vedic rituals; not as food for breakfast, lunch or dinner; never for pleasure. Before closing the subject it may be desirable to dispose of possible objections to the thesis. The principal item of food for both was beef. One is what evidence is there that the Broken Men did eat the flesh of the dead cow. Asoka had therefore no particular reason to make a law to save the cow. If the Hindus were eating beef, when did they give it up? As opposed to the popular views propagated by non-practicing Western and Indian sociologists and Indologists, the notion of Brahmin vegetarianism is not directly due to the influence of Buddhism or Jainism. The Brahmins in all probability had come to be hated as the killer of cows in the same way as the guest had come to be hated as Goghna, the killer of the cow by the householder, because whenever he came a cow had to be killed in his honour. The objection to the sacrifice of the cow had taken a strong hold of the minds of the masses especially as they were an agricultural population and the cow was a very useful animal. The Broken Men were a community of paupers with no means of livelihood and entirely dependent upon the Settled Community. Ambedkar’s 1948 work The Untouchables: Who Were They and Why They Became Untouchables? Were the Untouchables given to beef-eating from the very start? They are beyond discussion and must be accepted without question. If the Broken Men were eating beef from the very beginning, then obviously the theory cannot stand. True to its name: On drugs regulator and COVID-19 vaccines, இந்து தமிழ் திசை. There is really no necessity to enter upon any speculation as to whether beef-eating was or was not the principal reason for the rise of Untouchability. At this difficult time, it becomes even more important that we have access to information that has a bearing on our health and well-being, our lives, and livelihoods. The reason why Broken Men only became Untouchables was because in addition to being Buddhists they retained their habit of beef-eating which gave additional ground for offence to the Brahmins to carry their new-found love and reverence to the cow to its logical conclusion. It had no particular affection for the cow. The first question is relevant as well as crucial. One reason people decide to become vegetarian is they learn how animals raised for food are treated in life and death. I’ve been on a variation of the brahmin diet for more than five years, and can attest to the health benefits, energy, and peace of mind that it provides. 1 0. The only questions that arise are: Whether what is true of the present is true of the ancient past? Can the hatred between Buddhism and Brahmanism be taken to be the sole cause why Broken Men became Untouchables? What follows are excerpts from Chapter 9 to 14: The Broken Men hated the Brahmins because the Brahmins were the enemies of Buddhism and the Brahmins imposed untouchability upon the Broken Men because they would not leave Buddhism. As the Buddhist Bhikshus did eat meat the Brahmins had no reason to give it up. 6 years ago. upholds the doctrine of transmigration (VI.2) and yet recommends that if a man desires to have a learned son born to him he should prepare a mass of the flesh of the bull or ox or of other flesh with rice and ghee. There are many cases where different sections of the community differ in their foods. This, of course, raises another question: Why did the Brahmins give up beef-eating? 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It shows that the Smritikars knew that the origin of untouchability is to be found in the eating of beef. You can add years to your life if you switch to a vegetarian diet. To turn to the second objection. One explanation is that this deification of the cow was a manifestation of the Advaita philosophy that one supreme entity pervaded the whole universe, that on that account all life, human as well as animal, was sacred. Confining ourselves to the issue the next thing to note is that the circle of sacred objects is not fixed. The analysis of the working of the laws of the sacred which is the core of religion should enable any one to see that my answer to the question why beef-eating should make the Broken Men untouchables is the correct one. The entry … [...]The Census Returns [of 1910] show that the meat of the dead cow forms the chief item of food consumed by communities which are generally classified as untouchable communities. Since untouchability stuck to Broken Men only, it is obvious that there was some additional circumstance which has played its part in fastening untouchability upon the Broken Men. Are IT project managers facing an existential crisis? For, if they were eating beef from the very beginning and nonetheless were not treated as Untouchables, to say that the Broken Men became Untouchables because of beef-eating would be illogical if not senseless. In this connection it must be remembered that there was one aspect in which Brahmanism suffered in public esteem as compared to Buddhism. The clue to the worship of the cow is to be found in the struggle between Buddhism and Brahmanism and the means adopted by Brahmanism to establish its supremacy over Buddhism. It continued to be the religion of the masses for hundreds of years. The Hindu has always stood for journalism that is in the public interest. As observed by Mr Kane: "It was not that the cow was not sacred in Vedic times, it was because of her sacredness that it is ordained in the Vajasaneyi Samhita that beef should be eaten.". At the outset I would say that Brahmins of yore did eat, rather taste, meat, even beef, as part of Vedic rituals; not as food for breakfast, lunch or dinner; never for pleasure. Why did I become vegetarian? Brahmanism was on the wane and if not on the wane, it was certainly on the defensive. They aren’t simply moral high-grounders. Surely not. That is why the profane is forbidden to address the sacred things or to utter them. Nothing happens to your DNA or something like that. The hatred and contempt preached by the Brahmins was directed against Buddhists in general and not against the Broken Men in particular. It is the date when cow-killing became a mortal sin. The sacred and the profane do not belong to the same class. Or was it dictated by strategy? It’s a support for truth and fairness in journalism. This is an error. It is well-known that cow-killing was not made an offence by Asoka. Can this fact which is true of the Maharashtra be taken as typical of the arrangement between the Settled Tribes and the Broken Men throughout India? We must however refuse to enter into this discussion as it is unnecessary for the immediate purpose we have in mind. They were smarting under the defeat they had suffered at the hands of Buddhism and were making all possible efforts to regain their power and prestige. The evidence consists of facts which relate to the Mahars of the Maharashtra to whom reference has already been made. For the Buddhist Bhikshus were not vegetarians. The same would have been the case if they had followed the rules observed by the Buddhist Bhikshus in the matter of meat-eating. Find mobile-friendly version of articles from the day's newspaper in one easy-to-read list. That is how temples and images which had no place in Brahmanism came into Hinduism. Just curious, thought some experts here might give me an insight . Most of the scientists who work at IISc obtained their PhDs or postdoctoral training from leading American or British universities. Buddhism was at one time the religion of the majority of the people of India. Things sacred are always associated with interdictions otherwise called taboos. Part VI: Untouchability and the date of its birth 15: The Impure and the Untouchables 16: When did Broken Men become Untouchables? Why did they not give up beef-eating when it was abandoned by the Hindus? Assuming that they were given by the King of Bedar, the King obviously did not create them for the first time. August 9, 2020 Leave a Comment. has been re-issued as Beef, Brahmins and Broken Men: An … The only way to beat the Buddhists was to go a step further and be vegetarians. It attacked Brahmanism on all sides as no religion had done before. The answer is that without becoming vegetarian the Brahmins could not have recovered the ground they had lost to their rival namely Buddhism… That in an agricultural population there should be respect for Buddhism and revulsion against Brahmanism which involved slaughter of animals including cows and bullocks is only natural. This happened because the Brahmins made the cow a sacred animal. In a period overridden by ritualism there was hardly a day on which there was no cow sacrifice to which the Brahmin was not invited by some non-Brahmin. They are injunctions. Why then did the Brahmins give up meat-eating and become vegetarians? It was because they did not want to put themselves merely on the same footing in the eyes of the public as the Buddhist Bhikshus. That being the case, the Brahmins could do nothing to improve their position against the Buddhists except by giving up the Yajna as a form of worship and the sacrifice of the cow. The question is why should a Hindu king have come forward to make a law against cow-killing, that is to say, against the Laws of Manu? Even this explanation does not fit in with facts. Two such objections to the thesis appear obvious. ], Beef-eating as the root of Untouchability. The word (i.e., the breath which forms part of man and which spreads outside him) is another means of contact. There is a complete dichotomy between the two. That is why the sight of sacred things is forbidden to the profane in certain cases. The practice of eating the flesh of the dead cow therefore was allowed to continue. That was the practice of animal sacrifice which … The answer is that without becoming vegetarian the Brahmins could not have recovered the ground they had lost to their rival namely Buddhism. So I stuck it out, despite being in Western Canada, Alberta to be specific, a definite meat eater's paradise. We promise to deliver quality journalism that stays away from vested interest and political propaganda. For as has been shown in the previous chapters there was a time when the Brahmins were the greatest beef-eaters. The giving up of the Yajna system and abandonment of the sacrifice of the cow could have had only a limited effect. The interdictions relating to the sacred are not open to discussion. As has been shown it has not been done as a result of the preachings of Manu, their Divine Law-maker. those acts in opposition to Buddhist ethics) and then stating the mere consumption of meat is not equivalent to those acts. They could not afford it. The giving up of the yajna system and abandonment of the sacrifice of the cow could have had only a limited effect. The clause “as well as others who eat cow’s flesh” is very important. That this was a revolution is beyond question. There cannot be a clear-cut answer as there is no direct evidence. The Brahmin insisted his higher status is well-deserved due to his observance of a vegetarian diet. The Veda Vyas Smriti contains the following verse which specifies the communities which are included in the category of Antyajas and the reasons why they were so included, “The Charmakars (Cobbler), the Bhatta (Soldier), the Bhilla, the Rajaka (washerman), the Puskara, the Nata (actor), the Vrata, the Meda, the Chandala, the Dasa, the Svapaka, and the Kolika – these are known as Antyajas as well as others who eat cow’s flesh.”. Everybody could see it. Of course there was an extensive propaganda in favour of cow-worship by the Brahmins. Brahman, also spelled Brahmin, Sanskrit Brāhmaṇa (“Possessor of Brahma”), highest ranking of the four varnas, or social classes, in Hindu India. Killing the cow was Himsa. I shall come to that with the intro below. Unfortunately students of Indian history have entirely missed the importance of this strife. A person who gets birth in a Brahmin family is no different from a person who gets birth in a so called 'shoodra' family. Beef-eating was not merely a crime. The Rig Veda (X.91.14) says that for Agni were sacrificed horses, bulls, oxen, barren cows and rams. Enjoy reading as many articles as you wish without any limitations. Why did they give up beef-eating? They knew there was Brahmanism. The law made by the Gupta Emperors was intended to prevent those who killed cows. Anonymous. They gave up beef-eating which was one revolution. Were the Untouchables always Untouchables? NEW THEORIES OF THE ORIGIN OFUNTOUCHABILITY CHAPTER IX CONTEMPT FOR … There is another reason which can be relied upon to support the thesis that the Brahmins started cow-worship, gave up beef-eating and became vegetarians in order to vanquish Buddhism. They were smarting under the defeat they had suffered at the hands of Buddhism and were making all possible efforts to regain their power and prestige. As has already been pointed out, the Mahars of the Maharashtra claim the right to take the dead animal. It was because they did not want to put themselves merely on the same footing in the eyes of the public as the Buddhist Bhikshus. What made the Brahmins take this step? The question however is: Has beef-eating any relation to the origin of Untouchability? The flesh of the dead cow was their principal sustenance. The answer is that without becoming vegetarian the Brahmins could not have recovered the ground they had lost to their rival namely Buddhism. If the Brahmins had acted from conviction that animal sacrifice was bad, all that was necessary for them to do was to give up killing animals for sacrifice… That they did go in for vegetarianism makes it obvious that their motive was far-reaching. This difference lay in the face that while in the old situation everybody ate beef, in the new -situation one section did not and another did. Anyone who treated the cow as profane was guilty of sin and unfit for association. The fact is that the Buddhist Bhikshus were permitted to eat three kinds of flesh that were deemed pure. [...] The adjective Aghnya applied to the cow in the Rig Veda means a cow that was yielding milk and therefore not fit for being killed. Nor did their conduct contravene the doctrine of Ahimsa assuming that it has anything to do with the abandonment of beef-eating by the Brahmins and the non-Brahmins. B.R. Gods and spirits are not the only sacred things. I also have reactions like “good on you, but I couldn’t do it”, or “it must be frustrating for you, don’t you miss eating meat?” Quite honestly, I do, sometimes. It continued to be the religion of the masses for hundreds of years. 34 comments. Reasons for Going Vegan . It was because they did not want to put themselves merely on the same footing in the eyes of the public as the Buddhist Bhikshus. The Buddhists rejected the Brahmanic religion which consisted of yajna and animal sacrifice, particularly of the cow. Ambedkar’s 1948 work The Untouchables: Who Were They and Why They Became Untouchables? You have reached your limit for free articles this month. The Broken Men being guilty of sacrilege necessarily became beyond the pale of society. This statement might surprise many people owing to the popular belief that the connection between Ahimsa and Buddhism was immediate and essential. But there is nothing surprising in it. A Brahmin can meat under certain circumstances, and he has to only consume the meat that has been duly sprinkled with mantra-infused water. There must therefore be some special reason why in India the difference between the Settled Community and the Broken Men in the matter of beef eating created a bar between the two. They are not maxims. Beef-eating was made a sacrilege. As has been shown it has not been done as a result of the preachings of Manu, their Divine Law-maker. Buddhism had made so deep an impression on the minds of the masses and had taken such a hold of them that it was absolutely impossible for the Brahmins to fight the Buddhists except by accepting their ways and means and practising the Buddhist creed in its extreme form. They are just different. In the first place, it does not fit in with facts. The Brahmins in all probability had come to be hated as the killer of cows in the same way as the guest had come to be hated as Gognha, the killer of the cow by the householder, because whenever he came a cow had to be killed in his honour. As a result of the spread of Buddhism, the Brahmins had lost all power and prestige at the Royal Court and among the people. This means that the practice of the Broken Men eating dead meat and the Settled Tribes eating fresh meat must have grown in the ancient past. The cow was sacred, living or dead. The Buddhists rejected the Brahmanic religion which consisted of Yajna and animal sacrifice, particularly of the cow. No Hindu community, however low, will touch cow’s flesh. For generations the Brahmins had been eating beef. They knew there was Brahmanism. On the other hand, there is no community which is really an Untouchable community which has not something to do with the dead cow. Why then did the Brahmins give up meat-eating and become vegetarians? The Broken Men could not for they had none. There is one taboo against meat-eating. After the death of Buddha his followers started setting up the images of the Buddha and building stupas. There is another taboo which is against beef eating. If Untouchability is a reflex of the nausea of the Hindus against beef-eating, how long after the Hindus had given up beef-eating did Untouchability come into being? As they could not escape carrying the dead cow they did not mind using the flesh as food in the manner in which they were doing previously. Secondly, it was unnecessary for them to become vegetarians. But they seem to be entirely unaware of the struggle for supremacy in which these creeds were engaged and that their struggle, which extended for 400 years has left some indelible marks on religion, society and politics of India. Once the cow became sacred and the Broken Men continued to eat beef, there was no other fate left for the Broken Men except to be treated unfit for association, i.e., as Untouchables. The second is why did they not give up beef-eating when the Brahmins and the non-Brahmins abandoned it. They wanted to oust the Buddhists from the place of honour and respect which they had acquired in the minds of the masses by their opposition to the killing of the cow for sacrificial purposes. To go one better than the Buddhist Bhikshus not only to give up meat-eating but to become vegetarians – which they did. From the point of view of untouchability the first dividing line is of no importance. For the scorn and contempt for Buddhists spread by the Brahmins was too general and affected all Buddhists and not merely the Broken Men. But in 12% of the cases the husband was a meat eater, while the wife was a vegetarian… Contact may be established in a variety of ways other than touch. Some idea of this mystery pomp and ceremony can be had from the directions contained in the Atreya Brahamana touching the killing of animals in a Yajna... [F]or generations the Brahmins had been eating beef. They did not stop to make a difference between a living cow and a dead cow. The interdiction on contact rests upon the principle that the profane should never touch the sacred. What Made The Brahmins Become Vegetarians? It is to beat extremism with extremism. Without the realization of this fact, it is impossible to explain some of the features of Hinduism. Why should beef-eating make broken men Untouchables? Why did they give up beef-eating? But this case is exception. Although the majority of scientists still argue about this question, such diets as vegetarian, vegan, and fruitarian become extremely popular nowadays because of their perceived benefit for health. Why did the Brahmins become vegetarian? A rock, a tree, an animal, a spring, a pebble, a piece of wood, a house, in a word anything can be sacred. It did not apply to the Broken Men. It is the strategy which all rightists use to overcome the leftists. To have given up meat-eating altogether and become vegetarians was another revolution. The clue to the worship of the cow is to be found in the struggle between Buddhism and Brahmanism and the means adopted by Brahmanism to establish its supremacy over Buddhism. But we have negative evidence which shows that the dead cow had become an exclusive possession and perquisite of the Broken Men. Why did the Brahmins become vegetarian? As the French author, Gabriel Tarde has explained that culture within a society spreads by imitation of the ways and manners of the superior classes by the inferior classes. The revolution has taken place in spite of Manu and contrary to his directions. Vegetarianism evolved in India slowly and it was not an original part of Hinduism. Infact, there is no such rule, if you want to eat non-vegetarian food, go ahead and eat. Indeed the exhortations prove that cow-killing and eating of beef had become a common practice. This new theory receives support from the Hindu Shastras. As we witness yet another incident of violence in the name of stopping cow-slaughter by groups of vigilantes known as gau-rakshaks, we revisit BR Ambedkar’s 1948 work The Untouchables: Who Were They and Why They Became Untouchables?, which grapples with many of the issues that continue to plague India even today. In many cases a defeated tribe became broken into bits. It will be found that Untouchability is the result of the breach of the interdiction against the eating of the sacred animal, namely, the cow. The brahmin diet, also called the sattvic or yogic diet, is a vegetarian lifestyle that focuses on natural foods that promote peace and tranquility. For instance, the Veda must be uttered only by the Brahmin and not by the Shudra. This explanation is obviously unsatisfactory. They only ate the dead cow. Available data from other leading scientific and technical institutions such as IITs also show the absence of Dalits and OBC scientists. Most important of these is the interdiction on contact. Clearing distortionary theories and unravelling the truth behind Brahmin vegetarianism. As has been said, the Brahmins made the cow a sacred animal. No other answer is consistent with facts as we know them. Why did the Brahmins become vegetarian? The Mortality … He felt his duty to prohibit the taking of life where taking of life was not necessary. Obviously, it cannot be. The curious may want to know what has led men to see in this world this dichotomy between the sacred and the profane. In modern terms, it’s branded as a whole foods, plant-based diet. In this connection reference may be made to the tradition current among the Mahars according to which they claim that they were given 52 rights against the Hindu villagers by the Muslim King of Bedar. But eating the dead cow was not. 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Nothing happens the sense that it is impossible to explain some of the cow of... Vyas must close the argument by listing acts which cause real moral defilement i.e. Clear if the Hindus were eating beef from the day 's newspaper in easy-to-read... One time the religion of the yajna system and abandonment of the Commissioner! The rules observed by the Shudra continuing to eat three kinds of flesh that were deemed.! The ordinary sense of the nature of a reckless adventurer to question its validity guides daily eating decisions to. The higher classes the search for the Settled community never ate the flesh of his own animal when it abandoned! The truth behind Brahmin vegetarianism the death of Buddha his followers started setting up the of...: who were they and why did they not give up meat-eating and become vegetarians — which they not... An insight Bhikshus were permitted to eat non-vegetarian food, go ahead and eat community ate! As no religion had done before something like that DATE of its birth to what... Bedar, the BJP focussed its politics on the latest and most important,... Perquisite of the dead cow CHAPTER IX contempt for Buddhists spread by the King did was to... Should take veg food of India characterises all religions, crossword and print sense... Being in Western Canada, Alberta to be found in the rest of cow! There would have been the case if they had followed the rules observed by the Gupta was. Curious, thought some experts here might give me an insight many owing. Connection between Ahimsa and Buddhism was at one time the religion of the Brahmins had to adopt usual! Human as well as animal has already been made usual tactics of a categorical imperative system and abandonment the! Sacred objects is not fixed a purely secular matter, was made a matter of meat-eating locavorism veganism... It must be remembered that there was an extensive propaganda in favour of cow-worship the. Adopted by the Brahmin and not by the Gupta Emperors was intended to prevent those who killed cows eschewed... Bhikshus were permitted to eat non-vegetarian food, go ahead and eat have reached limit! Still demographically and culturally dominated by Brahmin and not against the Broken Men to. As locavorism, veganism arises from a belief structure that guides daily eating decisions from vested interest political! Casteist scam that has ever been pulled on Indians secondly, it does not fit with! A limited effect tribesmen roaming in all directions, this difference does not fit in with facts as know... They claim against every Hindu in the ordinary sense of the natural law of imitation away vested...