Leaving a violent population in his rear could've been disastrous, and despite the time delay and cost in casualties of operations against the Celts, he rapidly subdued the area. Causes and Effects of the Punic Wars with a predilection for sinking competing trade vessels, a tactic so common that it was not even regarded as an act of war (Bagnall 20). Despite Marcellus' good showing, Carthage was able to capture Acerrae, Casilinium and Arpi furthering his influence in central Italy. While Hannibal's march through Gaul was relatively uncontested, the survival of his army through the Alps, let alone his subsequent victories was a marvelous achievement. Swords Against the Senate describes the first three decades of Rome's century-long civil war that transformed it from a republic to an imperial autocracy, from the Rome of citizen leaders to the Rome of decadent emperor thugs. As a result and from the very outset of the Roman invasion, Rome was able to secure a port as a supply base and also immediately nullify Spain as a source of supply and reinforcement for Hannibal in Italy. Cold and hungry, Hannibal and his army stormed a Gallic town on the 3rd day of the mountain hike. By October of 218 BC, Hannibal and his menacing force were ready to cross the Alps into Italy. He advised Carthage to accept the best terms they could and that further war against Rome, at this time, was futile. The Punic Wars were clashes between titans and were arguably the largest wars of the time period as the two participants were some of the most powerful nations of the time. For the winter of 204 to 203 BC, both armies waited in their own camps until the following spring. Because of the Tartesii, Hasdrubal, despite recent reinforcements of 4,000 infantry and 500 cavalry from Africa, had to postpone any plans to check the Roman advance until the following year. After Carthago Nova was secure, Scipio moved his main force to Tarraco where he spent the remainder of the year training and drilling his men. King Syphax of the Numidians rose against Carthage, an uprising eagerly incited by the Romans, troubling the Carthaginian's cause in Spain even further. Another 3,000 Romans were captured and more staggered into villages surrounding the battlefield. All around, the massive bulk of the Roman army was forced into confined space. The outcome of these wars determined the nation to dominate the Mediterranean for years to come, and the largest of the wars was the Second Punic War. 16 years after his invasion of Italy, the army of Hannibal was destroyed and Carthage was defeated. shipping. In a fast and furious display of death, Hannibal ordered his men to stand down only a few short hours after they originally encircled the enemy. The Carthaginian senate sanctioned an army of 25,000 infantry, 3,000 cavalry and 12 elephants that landed in Sicily in support of Syracuse, but they were to prove to be no match for Marcellus. Both sides prepare for war Rome wants to use superior navy to attack Carthage homeland. He also recruited heavily among the locals as naval rowers and additional auxiliary forces, not only supplementing his own forces, but giving the impression that the people were allies to Rome rather than enemies. Instead the Carthaginians spent the following months again consolidating their positions and reaffirming control of the south. The problem however, was that the Carthaginians were so evenly divided between 3 separate armies, that Roman advances against one force would leave their territory vulnerable to an unoccupied Carthaginian army. Fabius Maximus, meanwhile, despite his efforts and success in keeping the economic and political stability of Rome at the status quo, was losing popularity among the Senate and the people. While some in the Senate, such as Lucius Caecilius Metellus were ready to abandon the Republic as a lost cause, others like Scipio propped up the flagging Roman spirit with encouragement and undying oaths of loyalty to Rome. Scipio would later serve in the east during the Macedonian Wars and against Antiochus, but would be victimized later in life by the brilliant politics of Cato the Censor. Here, the residents welcomed Hannibal and his army used the city as its winter base until 215 BC. He valiantly attempted to maintain the Roman ranks, though vainly. Casilinum and Arpi were recaptured by Rome, but Hannibal looked to Tarentum as a long sought after port to receive reinforcements and supplies. At the time, between the 3 armies, estimates of 35,000 infantry, 6,000 cavalry and 30 elephants have been given for the total Carthaginian force. All work is written to order. In the Spring of 216 BC, Hannibal broke his winter camp and seized the large army supply depot at Cannae on the Aufidus River in Apulia. Special Issue: Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies Supplement 67: The Second Punic War a Reappraisal The Romans soon found that their success in the middle was pushing them into a potential disaster. In 210 BC the desperation was apparent in the granting of imperium to the young Publius Cornelius Scipio. The Scipios meanwhile, with a comparable force moved south to block Hasdrubal at the Ebro. Scarcely had he spoken when the answer no less proudly rang out: 'Whichever you please, we do not care.' Maximus' efforts to dwindle Hannibal's army, well aware of his problems in getting reinforcements, and wait for the right moment to strike were unappreciated by a nervous and anxious population. When the main armies met, the situation stabilized slightly for Rome, but the flanking pressure from the superior Numidian cavalry soon began to turn the tide. The interval between the First and Second Punic Wars (241–218 bce) The loss of naval supremacy not only deprived the Carthaginians of their predominance in the western Mediterranean but exposed their overseas empire to disintegration under renewed attacks by Rome. The causes of the First Punic War were mainly clashes of economic interests. With his assumption of command, he immediately set out to subdue rebellious tribes in his rear with his eventual goal to invade Italy. While a frightening sight to the Romans, Scipio's plan worked and the elephants went neatly into the open lanes. Effect of the second punic war. By 220 BC, Hannibal laid siege and opened the door to one of the ancient world's great wars. In 217 BC, Hasdrubal, now in command of the Carthaginian forces, recruited heavily among the local Iberians. The Roman economy was stimulated by the increase in profits as a result of its new prosperous land. An example is the Roman Republic during the Second Punic War. Arriving in northern Italy in the Spring of 208 BC, Hasdrubal immediately set out to join with Hannibal in the south and bolster his brother's flagging army. At the critical juncture, Mago's ambush was sprung, and the Romans were finished. Theoretically, the Roman tactic of crushing Hannibal between two large armies should have spelled his doom, but Hannibal's brilliance allowed him to turn the tables once the engagement got under way. While Scipio had retained the services of Masinissa, another Numidian, King Syphax, maintained his loyalty to Carthage. One significant and lasting change to Rome as a result of the Punic Wars was an increase in the use of slaves. As the remaining Gauls fled the battle, the Romans allowed them to leave, to spread the word of the great Roman victory and the re-establishment of dominance in Italy. The Romans were able to find another source of grain, from Egypt, at three times the normal price. Completely unmolested during the war Rome was prepared, however, and Hannibal could do little more than camp outside the Colline gates. The Romans smashed the defenders, this time in a double flanking maneuver, but Hasdrubal and Syphax were able to escape once again. Instilled from birth with his father's hatred of Rome and raised to be a leader of men, Hannibal became the greatest threat to Rome in its history. With success in those primary goals, he was to raise an additional army and follow Hannibal to Italy. He brilliantly anticipated Sempronius' impetuousness and set up an ambush. Sicily would become very important to Rome as a source of grain. Through the whole affair, the Scipios took advantage of the situation and recaptured the site that started the entire war, Saguntum. Meanwhile, Hannibal's brother Hanno was kept busy suppressing a revolt against Carthage near Bruttium. The great beasts quickly panicked and turned on their own lines to escape the carnage. Gaius Terentius Varro and Lucius Aemilius Paullus were elected in his place and it was their mission to remove Hannibal for good. The first Punic War lasted from 264-241 B.C. An invasion by a Roman Consular army under Publius Cornelius Scipio was launched in 218 BC, but a revolt among the Celts in Cisalpine Gaul forced a change in the plans. In Italy, Carthage finally sent at least a small force of reinforcements that joined Hannibal at Lucri. He left Rome with an army of 10,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry and like his uncle before him, landed at Emporiae. Because of the fragmentary condition of Polybius’ Histories, it is necessary to use Livy’s . Artisans were promised freedom if they continued to work in Roman service. Rome had been attacked by the Carthaginian commander Hannibal and suffered a number of shocking defeats: in the Po Valley (218 BC), at Lake Trasimene (217), and at Cannae (216). By 205 BC, Mago, knowing the cause in Spain was lost, sailed from Liguria to Italy in an attempt to join with Hannibal but was subsequently defeated in Cisalpine Gaul much like Hasdrubal before him. Weakened by the need to garrison so many new conquests, the Romans were left with only a small contingent of actual legionaries among 45,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry. Carthaginian territory was then turned into the province of Africa by the Roman. A civil war being fought between two brothers of the same undetermined tribe in a very fertile region in the mountain foothills also worked in Hannibal's favor. Hannibal set up an ambush that would force the Romans into open terrain, sandwiched between the northern shore of the lake and the opposite hilly ground. The richest lands were converted to vineyards and the poorer tracts to olive groves, while ranching was the most profitable for capitalist landowners. This book reveals how an empire that stretched from Glasgow to Aswan in Egypt could be ruled from a single city and still survive more than a thousand years. At Trebbia, Hannibal proved his superior leadership in understanding the psychology of his opponent, his tactical strategy and in propaganda warfare. Envoys sent to Carthage to complain about this violation of the newly ratified peace treaty were promptly attacked, and Scipio had no choice but to renew his offensive. The long lasting result of this war is the destruction of the Carthage itself. Sometimes, it is indeed this simple. Hannibal refused to move on Rome. ...The Punic Wars were 3 wars fought between Rome and Carthage that lasted from 264 to 146 B.C. The biggest spectacle of the Second Punic War was the rise of Hannibal … Hannibal brought his archers and slingers to bear and the result in the confines was devastating. The death of Marcellus though, provided little real improvement to Hannibal's fortunes. In 203 BC Hannibal sailed his remaining army of some 15,000 men back home and the war in Italy was over. Despite previous devastating losses, Roman tradition held that force could only be countered by force, and the large rebuilt Roman army would meet Hannibal at Cannae inAugust, 216 BC. Approaching the enemy, Publius found himself walking into a hornet's nest, being stung on all sides. Upon his escape from the Roman roadblock, Hannibal moved into Transalpine Gaul territory occupied by the Boii. As a result Spanish forces were sent to Africa to help quell the rebellion, but rather than putting it to an end, Syphax was able to withdraw via Gibraltar and add his vaunted Numidian cavalry to the Roman cause. He hoped that his activities in the important area near Zama would draw Hannibal away from his defensive works at Hadrumetum and Carthage. Shortly after Cannae, the Romans rallied back, declaring full mobilization. The successful maneuver ended the threat, and peaceful crossing resumed. Scipio also was well aware of Hannibal's great ability in a defensive position, especially around Carthage. These five armies (3 Carthaginian, 2 Roman) engaged in a series of actions around the cities of the Iliturgi and Intibili in east-central Hispania with the Carthaginians pressing the action. Of supplies, Hannibal only received support directly from Carthage once, in 215 BC. In times of dire need, dictatorial power allowed a single man to develop strategies, make appointments and prepare the armies without the usual political wrangling. At the critical juncture, however, the Roman and Numidian cavalry broke off its pursuit of the fleeing Carthaginian cavalry and returned to attack Hannibal's flanks. The Punic Wars were an integral part of the chain of events that brought the Roman Empire to a place of dominance in the Western Mediterranean and reduced Carthage(which prior to the Wars enjoyed a leading position(to little more than which was for 23 years. Marcellus was able to cross back into Italy and put more pressure on Hannibal. The system of alliances, treaties, protectorates and provinces forged the basis of a highly successful empire. Before leaving Spain, however, Hannibal was well aware that Roman forces intended for him would try to meet him there. In the aftermath, a great number of the Capuan citizenry was sold into slavery for punishment and the land of the town was auctioned off to Roman citizens. The capture of Carthago Nova not only drove a wedge into the heart of Carthaginian Spain, it gave the Romans much needed military stores and supplies, access to local silver mines, an excellent harbor and a perfectly positioned base for further operations in southern Spain. The Celts were eager to help Hannibal cross the Alps, and their aid, knowing the safe passages, likely was a major factor in his successful march through them. In Rome, the defeats were obviously shocking but were greeted with a resolute response. Quickly after the battle opened, the Scipios recognized the strategy and effectively countered it. Two Roman armies had been raised for the purposes of dealing with Carthage. He hoped the elephants would route the central lines of the Romans while his cavalry could envelope it from the flanks. Rome benefited greatly from the acquisition of Sicily. The main Roman army approached the Trebbia, pushing the Numidians back across, completely unaware of the trap set for them. Rome thought it would be easy to defeat Hannibal, but Hannibal was full of surprises, including his manner of entering the Italic peninsula from Spain. By 220 BC, while the Romans were occupied in Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum, Hannibal, and his brother Hasdrubal established control of the Hispania peninsula as far north as the Ebro (Iberus) River. Multiple pages on Roman Gods have been combined into one single page. Publius Cornelius Scipio debarked for Sicily in 205 BC with an army of volunteers, to meet up with forces (the survivors from Cannae) assigned to him there. The Carthaginians soon broke and the battle, and the Second Punic War, would soon be over. The beginning of 211 BC proved to be a much better year for the Barca clan. Mago took what little army he had left and joined Hannibal in Bruttium. After Trasimenus, Maximus felt that the Romans had little chance against Hannibal in open warfare. The third and final war lasted 49-146 B.C, for 3 years. During the period, the government of the Roman empire met the most prolonged crisis of its history and survived. In 210 BC, Hannibal led another victory over the Romans at Herdonea, where the Romans supposedly lost another 16,000 men. News of Hasdrubal's complete defeat in upper Italy after escaping Scipio arrived at this time and Carthage was clearly on the defensive in all theatres for this first time in the war. While the Celts were pushed back, they didn't break, however. After the victory at the Ebro, the Roman senate sent Publius Scipio back to Spain with reinforcements of 8,000 men. It began in 218 B.C., and continued through 201 B.C. Malnourished, weather-beaten and exhausted, the Carthaginian force was met with resistance by many of the local Gallic tribes. In the end, Hasdrubal's army was routed and its effects were felt throughout the course of the entire war. The whole island with the exception of the independent Syracuse was governed by a praetor sent from Rome. Hannibal crossed the Apennines and spent the summer of 217 scouring southern Italy. Allowing some native Spanish troops to return to their homes (and possible transfer to Hasdrubals army) and deductions for Hanno's occupation force, he continued on with 50,000 men, 9,000 cavalry and his elephants. While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and North Africa. In so doing, the Romans also refused to pay ransoms to Hannibal for any captured legionaries who still remained. In less than a year since the disaster at Trasimenus, the Roman's greatest loss was in history put the state into a panic. These survivors were later reconstituted as two units and assigned to Sicily for the remainder of the war as punishment for their loss. An essay or paper on Causes and Effects of the Punic Wars. Siege equipment was in short supply as well, and he looked for better options for his force. Earlier, while Hamilcar was still establishing control of Spain, Rome was concerned over Carthaginian resurgence. Meanwhile in Sicily, the King of Syracuse, Heironymos was murdered by Roman operatives for fear of his allegiance to Carthage. While the battle hung in the balance for some time, the superior numbers of Nero allowed him to eventually outflank and envelop Hasdrubal. Carthage was in a difficult situation after the defeat of the First Punic War. The following year, 208 BC, Hannibal continued to hold off the Romans. Another brother of Hannibal, Mago, sailed with his remaining army from the siege of Carthago Nova, by way of the Balearic Islands, to Liguria in northern Italy. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. With their new leader Scipio the Romans had an advantage at the Battle of Zama. Hannibal's strategy of encouraging revolt among the Roman allies could have been devastating if Rome couldn't field any more legions. At the Battle of Ticinus, in late 218 BC, the 2 forces were first engaged in a small confrontation. Rule by Senate was consolidated due to the success with which they conducted the Second Punic War and the economic power they held through the control of huge estates many senators established after the war. Hasdrubal had begun recruiting an army to reinforce Hannibal in Italy, but Scipio and his extensive network of scouts were well aware of these plans. In the battle, Mago was wounded and another brother of Hannibal, Hanno, was killed. Publius Scipio, advancing on Mago near Castulo, had his own problems. Explain your opinion. Rome maintained control of Egypt and Spain. Other Celts harassed Hannibal's baggage trains, rolling large boulders from the heights onto the Carthaginian columns, causing panic and death among the victims. As a furious debate raged in the Senate as to the next course of action, no new levies were authorized for the invasion of Africa, but Scipio was allowed to prepare his campaign. It was forced to pay a tribute of 10,000 talents, all warships, save 10 were turned over to Rome along with any remaining war elephants. At first, the Roman front line was beaten badly in the center, but Scipio left more men in reserve, forcing Hannibal to leave some men uncommitted. As Hasdrubal was routing the Roman horse, the mass of infantry on both sides advanced towards each other in the middle of the field. In the end, it was a terrible slaughter and Paullus would be dead with the bulk of his men. What was an effect of the Second Punic War? The end of the First Punic War saw the beginning of the Roman expansion beyond the Italian peninsula. By the following year, Samnium and Apulia would both be back under Roman control and the path was open for the Romans to besiege Capua, Hannibal's former winter base. Hannibal crosses the Ebro. While a sound plan he failed to take several things into account. The 30,000 Carthaginians were outmatched from the start by the 35,000 - 40,000 Romans lined up against them. While ancient sources offer conflicting reports, it can be safe to assume that between the two, Consuls, they levied a force of nearly 80,000 men. The war in Spain never went as well for Carthage as it did in Italy. In the campaign year of 208 BC, Scipio marched south to Baecula to meet the unsuspecting Hasdrubal. The only blemishes on his record, for which he would be furiously punished politically by Cato the Elder years later, were his failure to stop Hasdrubal from escaping to Italy, and the short-lived and uneventful mutiny in 206 BC. A Carthaginian decoy baited the Romans into following it into the trap, while the bulk of the main army occupied the high ground surrounding the northern lake shores. It was in Sicily that the war began and in and around Sicily where most of the fighting took place. Only the Greek influenced cities along the coasts seemed to hold their loyalty firmly with Rome. Counter to the delaying tactics of the Dictator Fabius Maximus, Varro and Paulus immediately formed a large force to deal with the Carthaginians ravaging southern Italy. Mago had been enroute to join Hannibal and the diversion helped stem the Roman advance in Hispania but reduced the overall effectiveness of the Italian campaign. 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