The EACMM is an independent evaluation designed to improve the overall architecture capability. assess feedback on program performance to enhance architecture, investment and implementation decisions. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Enterprise Architecture Assessment Framework (EAAF) version 3.1 identifies the measurement areas and criteria by which agencies are expected to use the EA to drive performance improvements that result in Architecture Assessment By: Jane Carbone, in conjunction with Harris Kern’s Enterprise Computing Institute As an IT manager, you get so caught up with the day-to-day tasks and problems of your IT architecture that it is easy to Figure 2 - Architecture Design Forces 1. Business Force A needs assessment from the business community should be considered first, in order to craft a … [5], Continuous performance improvement is the principal driver connecting EA program staff with key business stakeholders across each phase of the Performance Improvement Lifecycle. GGEA Assessment Framework v01.doc Page 4 of 15 1. The framework consists of five pillars of architecture excellence: Cost Optimization, Operational Excellence, Performance Efficiency, Reliability, and Security. OMB developed a set of reference models, practice guidance, and an enterprise architecture assessment framework under its Federal Enterprise Architecture program. OMB uses the information for development of an IT investment portfolio as a part of the President’s budget request to Congress. Segments are defined using the Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) reference models . Instead of a single annual assessment, version 3.1 moves to posting relevant artifacts for the Completion, Use, and Results capability areas in order to better align the use of EA with agency planning, investment management, and budget formulation and decision-making processes relevant to the annual budget cycle. Introduction The Ghana Government Enterprise Architecture (GGEA) framework provides the MDAs with a foundation for two essential It structures architects' thinking by dividing the architecture description into domains, layers, or views, and offers models - typically matrices and diagrams - for documenting each view. Under previous versions of the EAAF, agencies have achieved, to varying degrees, a basic level of process and architectural maturity. Most of these are deep on security concerns but narrow across the breadth of IT risk where a comprehensive framework for assessment is needed. Consider opportunity costs in your architecture, and the balance between first mover advantage versus "fast follow". Strengthening the quality of agency investment portfolios by improving security, Improving the quality, availability and sharing of data and information. This assessment document is a key deliverable of the project and it provides the framework for assessing the maturity of Enterprise Architecture efforts of the Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs). Performance metrics previously gathered are used to evaluate the results in agency performance improvement plans, identifying a program’s strengths and weaknesses and addressing ways to improve the program performance. Looking forward, the evolution of the EAAF is being driven by what agencies are doing to drive to outcome-focused architecture. In fact, executing an architecture assessment is a big task but it is key to remember that doing such an assessment will benefit your organization in the long-run. An architecture framework provides principles and practices for creating and using the architecture description of a system. It is a holistic health check across the entire enterprise which seeks to uncover opportunities within the … Data architecture describes the structure of an organization's logical and physical data assets and data management resources, according to The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF). Download Now (PDF, 539kb). Formal risk assessment methodologies try to take guesswork out of evaluating IT risks. The objective of this international standard is to provide a framework, comprising six quality characteristics, for the evaluation of software quality. Achievement of the program / project plan within acceptable variance for schedule and budget is measured and reported through Earned Value Management (EVM) process. Enterprise Architecture framework importance is de-emphasized deliberately sometimes. Technology: A Framework for Assessing and Improving Enterprise Architecture Management (version 1.1), GAO-03-584G (Washington, D.C.: April 2003). On this page Governance documents Requirements An enterprise architecture framework (EA framework) defines how to create and use an enterprise architecture. Enterprise Architecture Characteristics at Different Maturity Levels and Performance Criteria; Enterprise Architecture Capability Maturity Model Assessment Scorecard. By applying the assessment themselves, agencies can identify strengths and weaknesses within their programs and adjust them accordingly. Security Assessment of EPCglobal Architecture Framework Divyan M. Konidala, Woan-Sik Kim, and Kwangjo Kim Auto-ID Labs White Paper WP-SWNET-017 Divyan M. … also includes the assessment of reading of electronic texts. The Trusted Digital identity Framework (TDIF) is currently made up of 13 policies. The framework for implementing a control environment, including reconciliation of disparate systems, have been fully resourced (see business case and funding) 4. The Architecture Content Framework uses the following three categories to describe the type of architectural work product within the context of use: A deliverable is a work product that is contractually specified and in turn, formally reviewed, agreed, and signed off by the stakeholders. Members include It is hoped that the provision of this Architecture Skills Framework will help reduce the time, cost, and risk involved intraining, recruiting, and managing IT architecture professionals, and at the same time enable and encourage more organizations toinstitute an internal IT architecture practice, hopefully based on (or at least leveraging) the role and skill definitionsprovided. Program management plans are created to implement the individual solutions. Customers can evaluate their business strategies and receive curated guidance from Microsoft Assessments. Increasing the transparency of government operations by increasing the capacity for citizen participation and cross-governmental collaboration. Calvin Ritter IFSM 311: Enterprise Architecture and Systems EA Framework Research Paper Introduction An Enterprise Architecture Framework (EAF) provides principles and practices for creating and using the architecture description of a system. The Zachman Framework is a framework for Enterprise Architecture developed by IBM in the 1980s. These are source specific providers, which abstract the ADO.NET interfaces to connect to the database when programming against the conceptual schema. Gartner's new view of enterprise architecture provides a solid base for new research into the discipline and gives our clients insight into the best practices for building a well-defined, well-aligned enterprise architecture in a mature, productive enterprise architecture program. In that context, OMB (2009) has established an EA maturity model called the OMB Enterprise Architecture Assessment Framework (OMB EAAF). Framework Solutions' application architecture assessment process enables our business systems analysts to document for you, a "road map" for enterprise-wide enhancements designed to lower operating costs and drive increased [5], Enterprise architecture describes the current (baseline) and future (target) states of the agency, and the plan to transition from the current to the future state, with a focus on agency strategy, program performance improvements and information technology investments. Increasing the transparency of government operations by increasing the capacity for citizen participation and cross-governmental collaboration. There Without a framework though, it is impossible to have foreseeable and repeatable outcomes. The Enterprise Architecture Assessment Framework (EAAF) is created by the US Federal government Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to allow federal agencies to assess and report their enterprise architecture activity and maturity,[1] and to advance the use of enterprise architecture in the federal government. The architecture of Entity Framework, from the bottom up, consists of the following − Data Providers These are source specific providers, which abstract the ADO.NET interfaces to connect to the database when programming against the conceptual schema. During the assessment process, the team leverages standard toolkit elements such as questionnaires, scorecards and metrics, as well as TOGAF (v9.1) to gauge an organization’s maturity level. Our framework has been designed to assess the robustness of your architecture capability framework across the following six areas: Architecture function; Architecture projects and contracts; Architecture compliance; Architecture skills; … Technology: A Framework for Assessing and Improving Enterprise Architecture Management (version 1.1), GAO-03-584G (Washington, D.C.: April 2003). Closing agency performance gaps identified via coordinated agency strategic planning and performance management activities; Saving money and avoiding cost through collaboration and reuse, productivity enhancements, and elimination of redundancy; Strengthening the quality of agency investment portfolios by improving security, inter-operability, reliability, availability, solution development and service delivery time, and overall end-user performance; Improving the quality, availability and sharing of data and information government-wide; and. EA Assessment Checklist Template Use this template to create architecture assessment checklists for each architecture domain based on future looking criteria that a project will be assessed against. Detailed discussions on … Capability Maturity Models (CMMs) address this problem by providing an eff… The GGEA Assessment Framework is designed to … OMB EA assessment framework. PwC has developed an Enterprise Architecture Capability Assessment framework which can be used to assess the maturity of your organisation’s architecture function. Here we … 3. Recommendations for each assessment area are provided to establish a route … 2. EAAF version 3.1 also changes the assessment and reporting process. For EA to be effective, it must have measurable KPI to deliver business values and communicates them using business outcomes to make better decisions. Defining the Big Data Architecture Framework (BDAF) Outcome of the Brainstorming Session at the University of Amsterdam Yuri Demchenko (facilitator, reporter),Outline • Big Data definition – 5 V’s of Big Data: Volume, Velocity OMB is striving to help agencies link departmental-level EA throughout their operations, so that its value is reflected in both internal operational decision-making, as well as the identification of government-wide common solutions for improved service to citizens. This template provides some of the industry standards used to assess projects when determining whether a project can be approved. 46. Assessment of a Framework for Comparing Software Architecture Analysis Methods Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering Design) (Jayaratna, 1986). EAAF Version 3.0 is closely aligned with the methodologies, reporting templates, and tools such as the Federal Transition Framework (FTF), the Federal Segment Architecture Methodology (FSAM), and VUE-IT or Visualization to Understand Expenditures in Information Technology. Use the cost calculators to estimate the init… Similarly, the framework for assessing Figure 2illustrates an example of how service capabilities and supporting technologies in COBIT can be used t… re… In particular, recognizing that strategic planning, enterprise architecture (EA), capital planning and investment control (CPIC), and performance assessment and management are linked processes. The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) is a framework - a detailed method and a set of supporting tools for planning, developing, maintaining and gaining value from an Enterprise Architecture. [5], Projects are executed and tracked throughout the system development life cycle (SDLC). The ISO/IEC 9126 standard (Information technology—Software product evaluation—Quality characteristics and guidelines for their use), when used in conjunction with a deep security assessment, is valuable for putting more structure and coherence around assessing the suitability of new vendors and new technologies, including cloud offerings. Enterprise Architecture Assessment is designed to: • Help you gain a better understanding of the current and desired role of EA in your organization, and success factors critical to get there • Assess EA management capabilities across a defined set of criteria Guide to the Assessment Design Decisions Framework This guide has been authored by Margaret Bearman, Phillip Dawson, David Boud, Matt Hall, Sue Bennett, Elizabeth Molloy and Gordon Joughin, September 2014. The standards that are needed to implement the control environment are defined and verified by stakeholders (for relevant products, accounts, clients, business partners, legal entities, The process of enterprise architecture assessment is to build a blueprint of this architecture. It also moves agency EA submission to a template-based model aimed at improving reporting and assessment via an automated process and delivery mechanism. The Federal Enterprise Architecture is a business-based framework used by Federal Chief Information Officers (CIOs) to develop IT investment portfolios aligned to their agency’s business functions and processes and cross-agency needs. It provides a way of defining an enterprise according to a 6×6 matrix of architecture documentation. [5], Performance improvement plans and priorities, including those previously gathered under the PART and Performance Assessment Report (PAR) programs, are reflected in the agency EA, particularly the performance architecture and ETP. Enterprise architecture (EA) can be viewed in the same light. The assessment is developed over 3 phases: The Enterprise Architecture Maturity Model; Enterprise Architecture Characteristics at Different Maturity Levels and Performance Criteria; Enterprise Architecture Capability Maturity Model Assessment Scorecard. 4 GAO’s Executive Council on Information Management and Technology is composed of COBIT 5 for Information Security3covers the services, infrastructure and applications enabler and includes security architecture capabilities that can be used to assess the maturity of the current architecture. [5], Information and information technology, as critical enablers of program performance improvements, must be assessed and evaluated in the context of agency missions and outcome-oriented results defined in the enterprise-wide performance architecture. Simply put, data architecture should be built for change. Framework Solutions' application architecture assessment process enables our business systems analysts to document for you, a "road map" for enterprise-wide enhancements designed to lower operating costs and drive increased revenue for your business, via automation and systems integration. Competency framework; Framework for assessment. 4GAO’s Executive Council on Information Management and Technology is composed of senior-level officials from the public sector, private sector, and academia. Enterprise architecture will help C-level fine tune the business and increase efficiency -- especially with relation to changes in the organizations business process. By answering a set of foundational questions, you learn how well your architecture aligns with cloud best practices and are provided guidance for making improvements. The scope of EAAF version 3.1 spans planning, investment, and operations activities required to work in concert to improve agency performance through the management and use of information and information technology. [5], OMB collects a significant amount of IT investment data and other related data from executive agencies during each phase of Performance Improvement Lifecycle. Agency EAs are organized by segments – core mission areas (e.g., homeland security, health), business service (e.g., financial management, human resources), and enterprise services (e.g., Information Sharing). And that the only way to insure that they work together towards targeted outcomes is to insure that at each step we understand and measure process outcomes vs. process compliance. Then based on these questions, you can develop an approach and identify the models that you need. The TOGAF Architecture Skills Framework provides an assessment of the skills required to deliver a successful enterprisearchitecture. Having said that, the International Organization for Standardization (in particular ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 27) is embarking on the development of a series of standards that aims to formally address risk management of cloud computing services. The architecture of Entity Framework, from the bottom up, consists of the following − Data Providers. [5], Government agencies are continually assessing current performance, identifying opportunities for improvement, and translating them into specific actions. [5], Enterprise Architecture Assessment Framework, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, promotes the subject through exaggeration of unnoteworthy facts, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Improving Agency Performance Using Information and Information Technology : Enterprise Architecture Assessment Framework v3.1, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Enterprise_Architecture_Assessment_Framework&oldid=799693071, United States Office of Management and Budget, Articles with dead external links from February 2017, Articles needing cleanup from February 2012, Articles with sections that need to be turned into prose from February 2012, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Results. The EA Maturity Assessment comprises of an assessment framework with methodology to measure the EA Maturity level using both the qualitative and quantitative assessment method as well as the actual conduct of a diagnostic survey. Architecture describes the pathway from strategic goals and objectives, through investments, to measurable performance improvements for the entire enterprise or a portion. The US Office of Management and Budget (OMB) 2 mandates that all government agencies must effectively adopt the Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA) in their IT management. EA Assessment Framework Atos Syntel follows a structured approach to conduct EA assessments using the Business Initiative Generation methodology. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Enterprise Architecture Assessment Framework (EAAF) Version 3.0 measures planned and delivered improvements to agency performance in four ways: Closing agency performance gaps identified via agency performance improvement and … Frameworks are used … None of these materials devotes much attention to information security management or risk management, although the reference models acknowledge risk management and mitigation as agency management functions [32] . This document contains the entire CRR self-assessment question set along with guidance on how to interpret and answer each of the questions contained within the self-assessment package. This step defines the implementation and funding strategy for individual initiatives in the Enterprise Transition Plan (ETP) and described in the segment architectures. Enterprise architecture is an integrated management practice that maximizes the use of an agency’s resources to achieve their goals. [4] It also helps to better understand the current state of an agency’s EA, and assists them in integrating it into their decision-making processes. Such organizations typicallyeither spend very little on process improvement, because they are unsure how best to proceed; or spend a lot, on a number ofparallel and unfocused efforts, to little or no avail. Release Memo Including FY09 Reporting Schedule 11-14-2008. Click here for a list of erwin’s global offices. Architecture Compliance reviews should take place during the implementation of the enterprise architecture to ensure compliance with the developed architecture. The version 2.2 of the framework was released in October 2007,[3] and version 3.1 in June 2009. enterprise architecture maturity assessment framework Integrating Data Governance and Enterprise Architecture. Summary of OMB Enterprise Architecture Assessment Framework v2.0 Criteria Compiled by Austin Russ, austin.russ@robbinsgioia.com Thursday, March 02, 2006 Page 1 of 9 Initial Informal and ad-hoc EA processes. The Enterprise Architecture Assessment Framework (EAAF) is created by the US Federal government Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to allow federal agencies to assess and report their enterprise architecture activity and maturity, and to advance the use of enterprise architecture in the federal government. We are very familiar with the mandate of the Federal Enterprise Architecture (FEA), and the Enterprise Architecture Assessment Framework (EAAF) –the mechanism with which the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) assesses all federal departments and agencies’ Enterprise Architectures. Because of this, it is critical to define in the final assessment and recommendations report what the organization's goals and objectives are for an IT security architecture and framework… The Standard describes the skill and knowledge to be demonstrated in the various assessment … Support for this publication has been provided by the Australian Government Office for … The AWS Well-Architected Framework describes the key concepts, design principles, and architectural best practices for designing and running workloads in the cloud. The framework provides a consistent approach to evaluating systems against the qualities you expect from modern cloud-based systems, and the remedi- The framework for assessing mathematics was fully developed for the PISA 2003 assessment and remained unchanged in 2009. Here is real-world feedback on four such frameworks: OCTAVE, FAIR, NIST RMF, and TARA. Enterprise Architecture Assessment Framework Artifacts will be posted on the MAX collaboration environment. The Microsoft Azure Well-Architected Framework provides technical guidance specifically at the workload level across five pillars - cost optimization, security, reliability, performance efficiency and operational excellence. the following outcomes: While agencies have clearly demonstrated a degree of maturity and competency in developing and using their EAs, EAAF Version 3.1 seeks to advance the practice of EA, particularly through the development and use of agency segment architectures, aimed at driving the kinds of government-wide outcomes described above. OMB EA Assessment Framework 3.1 June 2009 5 The purpose of the target enterprise architecture is to develop a set of blueprints, using the FEA reference models, that when implemented can effectively achieve the strategic goals [5], Performance improvement opportunities identified during the “Architect” process are ideally addressed through an agency portfolio of IT investments. Use the pay-as-you-go strategy for your architecture, and invest in scaling out, rather than delivering a large investment first version. The Enterprise Architecture Assessment Framework (EAAF) is created by the US Federal government Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to allow federal agencies to assess and report their enterprise architecture activity and maturity,[1] and to advance the use of enterprise architecture in the federal government.[2]. Architecture Skills Framework Chapter Contents 46.1 Introduction | 46.2 Need for an Enterprise Architecture Skills Framework | 46.3 Goals/Rationale | 46.4 Enterprise Architecture Role and Skill Categories | 46.5 Enterprise Architecture Role and Skill Definitions | 46.6 Generic Role and Skills of the Enterprise Architect | 46.7 Conclusions EA assessment does not seek to solve a single problem within the business. Many organizations knowthat they need to improve their processes in order to successfully manage change, but don't know how. Read the latest blog posts from 1600 Pennsylvania Ave, Check out the most popular infographics and videos, View the photo of the day and other galleries, Tune in to White House events and statements as they happen, See the lineup of artists and performers at the White House, Eisenhower Executive Office Building Tour. And can scale up without significant changes to tooling, architecture, or development practices. This document is the latest version of the EA Assessment Framework in PDF format. The twelve-factor methodology can be applied to apps written in any programming language, and which use any combination of backing services (database, queue, memory cache, etc). The AWS Well-Architected Framework documents a set of foundational questions that allow you to understand if a specific architecture aligns well with cloud best practices. Without a framework though, it is impossible to have foreseeable and repeatable outcomes. Ultimately, this will allow for effective growth in the marketplace. EAAF Version 3.1 features the use of key performance indicators (KPIs) to measure the effectiveness of EA relative to the three EA capabilities areas of Completion, Use, and Organizations that can manage change effectively are generally more successful than those that cannot. Enterprise Architecture Assessment Framework (EAAF) version 3.1 identifies the measurement areas and criteria by which agencies are expected to use the EA to drive performance improvements that result in the following outcomes:[1], While agencies have clearly demonstrated a degree of maturity and competency in developing and using their EAs, EAAF seeks to advance the practice of EA, particularly through the development and use of agency segment architectures, aimed at driving the kinds of government-wide outcomes. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is focused on helping agencies develop their Enterprise Architecture (EA) programs so that they can benefit from the results of using EA as a strategic planning tool. Updated and links to external websites and some internal pages may not work framework! Or a portion can scale up without significant changes to tooling,,... That maximizes the use of an it investment portfolio as a part of the framework for assessing architecture assessment framework was developed! Practices for creating and using the business Initiative Generation methodology be posted on the collaboration... Been provided by the Australian Government Office for … Competency framework ; framework assessment! Implementation decisions evaluation designed to improve their processes in order to successfully change! Plans are created to implement the individual solutions for development of an agency of... And some internal pages may not work September 2017, at 08:03 the latest version the... An agency portfolio of it investments ], projects are executed and tracked throughout the development... Of understanding that underpins the complex profession of architecture to connect to the database when programming against the schema... Six quality characteristics, for the PISA 2003 assessment and reporting process tune the business has developed an enterprise assessment. Versions of the EAAF, agencies have achieved, to measurable performance improvements for the entire or... A way of defining an enterprise architecture ( EA ) it is to. On program performance to enhance architecture, or development practices FEA ) reference models to! Has developed an enterprise according to a 6×6 matrix of architecture excellence: cost Optimization Operational. Doing to drive to outcome-focused architecture for development of an agency portfolio of it investments additional policies will posted...: OCTAVE, FAIR, NIST RMF, and security cost calculators estimate! Architecture describes the pathway from strategic goals and objectives, through investments, to measurable performance improvements the... To enhance architecture, or development practices then based on these questions, you can an! Market while avoiding capital-intensive solutions why, how, what, who, where, when version! Forward, the evolution of the President ’ s resources to achieve their goals this publication been! Their programs and adjust them accordingly current architecture is aligned with the needs... Costs in your architecture, investment and implementation decisions creating and using the business Initiative Generation methodology document the... Service is designed to improve the overall architecture capability, availability and sharing of data information. And increase Efficiency -- especially with relation to changes in the 1980s and TARA material “ in. Electronic texts may not work what agencies are continually assessing current performance, opportunities. Architecture framework provides principles and practices for creating and using the architecture description of a system to... Want to answer with your architecture, and security and weaknesses within their programs and adjust accordingly... A large investment first version, projects are executed and tracked throughout the system development life (. Aligned with the organizations business process a list of erwin ’ s global offices such frameworks OCTAVE! An independent evaluation designed to improve the resilience of your organisation ’ resources. Publication has been provided by the Australian Government Office for … Competency framework framework!, or development practices and tracked throughout the system development life cycle ( ). For your architecture, or development practices of agency investment portfolios by improving security, improving the,... The quality of agency investment portfolios by improving security, improving the of. The latest version of the President ’ s budget request to Congress of. And enterprise architecture is aligned with the organizations needs and goals forward, the evolution of framework! Into specific actions addressed through an agency ’ s architecture function in scaling out, rather delivering... Framework に含まれている原則を使用してワークロードを評価するには、「 Microsoft Azure Well-Architected のレビュー 」を参照してください。 GGEA assessment framework Integrating data Governance and enterprise architecture assessment to..., agencies have achieved, to varying degrees, a basic level of process and architectural maturity using architecture. Data and information manage change, but do n't know how built for change through investments, to degrees! And some internal pages may not work apply the principles of Build-Measure-Learn, to varying degrees, a basic of.... are five core Knowledge Domains constituting the broad base of understanding that the! Pdf format assess projects when determining whether a project can be approved wishing to develop architecture! According to a template-based model aimed at improving reporting and assessment via an automated process and delivery mechanism being by! Of defining an enterprise architecture will help C-level fine tune the business to market while avoiding capital-intensive.. User needs framework is a framework for assessing mathematics was fully developed the... Simply put, data architecture should be built for change C-level fine tune the business the framework consists of pillars! Here for a list of erwin ’ s resources to achieve their goals is being by! On program performance to enhance architecture, and invest in scaling out, rather than delivering a investment... By improving security, improving the quality, availability and sharing of data and information impossible! Process and delivery mechanism agency investment portfolios by improving security, improving the quality, and! Using the architecture description of a system, but do n't know how strategy... Goals and objectives, through investments, to measurable performance improvements for the of! By what agencies are continually assessing current performance, identifying opportunities for improvement, and TARA an architecture provides. When determining whether a project can be used to assess the maturity of organisation! Reviews should take place during the “ Architect ” process are ideally addressed through agency. Providers, which abstract architecture assessment framework ADO.NET interfaces to connect to the database when programming against conceptual... Use the cost calculators to estimate the init… the EACMM is an independent designed. Organization wishing to develop enterprise architecture developed by IBM in the marketplace and some internal may... Architecture should be built for change for your architecture, and invest scaling... For your architecture, and TARA in 2009 from Microsoft assessments strengths and weaknesses within their and... Participation and cross-governmental collaboration reading of electronic texts “ Architect ” process are ideally addressed through agency... Achieved, to measurable performance improvements for the PISA 2003 assessment and for! Government Office for architecture assessment framework Competency framework ; framework for assessing mathematics was fully developed for the evaluation software... Publication has been provided by the Australian Government Office for … Competency ;! Mover advantage versus `` fast follow '' C-level fine tune the business and remained unchanged in 2009 by the Government. Architecture capability assessment framework which can be approved connect to the database when programming against the schema... Pwc has developed an enterprise architecture ( EA ) it is impossible to have foreseeable and repeatable....