There are about 100 species of dandelion, and all are beneficial. Dandelion. The leaves of the common dandelion are lobed and spoon-shaped, and the stem exudes a milky white sap if it is broken. Do not use if greens become moldy, slimy or dried out. After washing and salad spinning the greens, place a paper towel in the bottom, then loosely fill with greens, but do not pack them in. To identify dandelion by leaf and stem ONLY, Samuel Thayer wrote the following key that differentiates  four different plant greens that can be offered to wildlife patients,  cat’s ear (Hypochareis radicata),  wild lettuce ( Lactuca spp. Erect hairs or spines found along the keeled bottom of the midvein, latex white or light brown: Lactuca (lettuce), except L. muralis. Take a look at Dandelion family classification in the upcoming sections. And another thing. Here’s the taxonomy: Cichoriodeae  (Chicory/Dandelion subfamily). To me, the most “look-alike-y” of the look-alikes is cat’s ear (Hypochoeris radicata). It’s a great companion plant for gardening because it’s long taproot brings up nutrients to the shallow-rooting plants in the garden adding minerals and nitrogen to the soil. Anthropogenic (man-made or disturbed habitats), meadows and fields, shores of rivers or lakes Characteristics. This sun-loving beauty is a native of Greece, naturalized in temperate regions throughout the world, and familiar to nearly everyone. Common dandelion is the familiar weed of lawns and roadsides. Rinse in clean water. Electric fan or wind winnowing will finish the cleaning. This species of dandelion can be found in eastern Eurasia, and they are native to the southern part of Japan. Solitary new dandelion plants along fence rows, roadsides, flower beds, and in turfgrass should be grubbed out (removed by digging out the entire plant, taproot and all) before they produce seed. 2. For more information, see References & Citations, © 2020 Wildfoods 4 Wildlife - Website by Clayton Hamshar, Leaves are always in a rosette on the ground—no leaves come out of the stems, Leaf rib (back of leaf center axis) is generally hairless (but there could be a white wooly-looking bit), Only one yellow flower between the size of a quarter and a fifty cent piece per plant, Flower “petals” are squared off, not pointed at the tips, The leaf’s central axis in cross-section is rounded, no edge to it. Red-seeded Dandelion typically has smaller flowers, rarely over 1 inch across and more consistently deeply lobed leaves, the lobes more triangular to lance-like and consistent in size than Common Dandelion, with the lobe at the tip being approximately the same size as those along its length, though Common Dandelion leaves may also have this appearance. Submerge the plant material and swish it around to remove all dirt from leaves and roots. Seed with pappus parachute fluff is around  5/8 inch (15 mm) long. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov, Accessed  4 February 2016). There is a brief period in mid to late April when the first big flush of dandelion flowers go so seed en mass, about the same time that field mustard is at its peak. Dandelions are perennial, herbaceous plants that grow best in moist, sunny areas found in all parts of the northern temperate zone. Just so ya know. Taraxacum Species, Common Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) by frostweed Nov 2, 2004 10:28 AM. Be aware that grocery stores are starting to stock “Italian dandelion” greens. Always wash greens; you never know what might be on them…like animal feces or urine. which is eaten as seed. As mentioned, there are a good number of dandelion green lookalikes that are emerging from the ground right when dandelion emerges in the spring, and often in the same areas. Originally from Europe, it occurs nearly worldwide. The Chinese have used dandelions for more than a thousand years as a diuretic, hypoglycemic, antispasmodic, anticancer, antibacterial, and antifungal agent. Many greens are very sensitive to exposure to ethylene gas, though greens themselves are low emitters of the gas. common dandelion. It is also a very resilient plant that can grow in variable conditions. Nevertheless, look for the familiar yellow flower heads displaying closely packed florets (tiny flowers). It was introduced to North America from Europe and is now found across the continent, including in the Arctic and on Baffin Island (USDA 2010). Types of Dandelions: Yellow The common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) sports an iconic bright-yellow flower and grows in USDA hardiness zones 3 through 10. Scott, M. (2013). There are around 30 species of dandelion that can be found all over the world. Dandelion is common in pastures, lawns, orchards, hay fields, waste ground and roadsides. 1. The leaves of the Common Dandelion are lobed and spoon-shaped, and the stem exudes a milky white sap if it is broken. Dandelions will continue to grow, flower and go to seed throughout summer, but it will be more spotty and difficult to gather seeds in quantity. True dandelions have hollow stems and, when picked, bleed a milky liquid. Even coltsfoot flowers could fool some folks. Common dandelions, native to Europe and Asia, produce many wind … By leaving the roots attached, the greens will stay fresher longer in the refrigerator, up to 1 week. Top Answer. There are 2 common varieties of dandelion, T. Officinale and T. Erythrospermum which are native to Eurasia and North America. Photo taken on April 21, 2007 at Vandusen Gardens in Vancouver, BC, Canada. Wigg. – common dandelion Subordinate Taxa. blowball. 5. Species : Synonym(s): Taraxacum kok-saghyz auct. Nevertheless, look for the familiar yellow flower heads displaying closely packed florets (tiny flowers). Do not exceed 3 applications or 12 fluid ounces per acre per year. ), field sow thistle (Sonchus arvenis) and dandelion (Taraxacum spp.). Dandelions Vs. Italian Dandelions. The silky "parachutes" of the rounded head easily catch the wind and can be carried across a vast radius. The plant grows year round but goes dormant in areas that experience a cold winter. 4. They are lanceolate-to-ovate and often have deep, irregular teeth and/or lobes. Birchwood, Wisconsin: Forager’s Harvest Press. These are a related to dandelion, but are a different genus and species, Cichorium intybus, whose common name is either Catalogna chicory or San Pasquale chicory. Appearance; The problem; Control; What is dandelion? Two species, T. officinale and T. erythrospermum, are found as weeds worldwide. Clip flower heads off stems and submerge in cold water. The plants introduced to North America are triploids that reproduce by obligate gametophytic apomixis Some authorities recogni… Place in a colander or salad spinner to drain, then layout a towel and spread the greens on the towel and roll up the towel. These two species are so common that they are considered an invasive species due to their hardiness and ability to spread quickly. in height. 3. The species is native to Europe and Asia but can be found worldwide in temperate climates (Berg, 2007). Dandelion Description. The Common Dandelion, isn't it lovely? Common Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale ssp. Controls Carolina geranium, species of chickweed, clover and dandelion, vetch, dollarweed and common groundsel. Clip the bag closed or seed may waft out. dandelion blooming its little heart out "dandelion propagating it's little heart out" Some may think I'm crazy, but I think the dandelion seedhead is a thing of beauty. Leaf generally without erect hairs (may be a very fine wool laying down, especially on the midvein): Taraxacum (dandelion.). It has a rosette of leaves at the base of the plant; a deep taproot; a smooth, hollow stem; and a solitary yellow flower head composed only of … Read on to the bottom for some example of look-alikes. It was used for such conditions as abscesses, appendicitis, boils, caries, dermatitis, fevers, inflammations, leucorrhea, liver ailments, mastitis, scrofula, snakebites, and stomachaches. The common dandelion grows just about anywhere including fields, roadsides, and, unfortunately, lawns. The name “dandelion” comes from the French “dent de lion” – lion’s tooth, which refers to theserrated leaves.. Dandelion is common in pastures, lawns, orchards, hay fields, waste ground and roadsides. Dandelion is a flowering plant that belongs to the family Asteraceae. The common dandelion is actually a variety of forms or 'microspecies' and there are also a number of other dandelion species, so identification can be tricky. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. Dandelion is native to Europe but found throughout temperate regions in the Northern Hemisphere. 5. There are over 500 different documented species of dandelions in the UK. But if you want to collect a lot of seed and flower head all at once, look for that first large spring bloom before the first grass mowing of the season. Schinz & R. Keller : Taraxacum palustre var. If the greens will be used quickly within days, place the spun-and-towel-rolled damp greens to a 1 gallon ziploc baggie with 12-15 holes cut in it to provide air and keep the greens from molding (or reuse commercial grape bags with holes). The leaves on this species of dandelion are like the common dandelion. Each seed has a bunching of silky white bristles that are sensitive to wind or any other light physical disturbance. In April they almost dominate the landscape. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA. officinale, which is commonly called common dandelion or wandering dandelion. In part, this is due to the fact that most people can easily recognize dandelions and that they are accessible almost everywhere. The taproot can be boiled and eaten or dried and ground as a base for a hot drink. 6. The common yellow dandelion has a long list of powerful healing abilities as well as other health benefits. In most parts of the world, dandelion is known as weed. Native to Europe, it has spread nearly worldwide. Midrib cross-section triangular, forming a sharp or nearly sharp keel: Lactuca ( lettuce) or Sonchus (sow thistle), go to 6. dandelion faceclock This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in … – dandelion Species: Taraxacum officinale F.H. Often the stem is smooth and has tinges of red in it. General Description: Probably the most well know of all wildflowers, the common dandelion measures an average of 5-45 cm. Taraxacum albidum has not common name. For storage, there are a couple of different possible container methods. It’s a great companion plant for gardening because it’s long taproot brings up nutrients to the shallow-rooting plants in the garden adding minerals and nitrogen to the soil. Probably the most well know of all wildflowers, the common dandelion measures an average of 5-45 cm. Wearing a dust mask and after completely dry, take a handful of seeds in your hands and vigorously rub the seeds together over a large bowl (outside) until the seed separates from the fluff. The “petals” of the flower (which are actually ray flowers)  have squared off tips that resemble a rectangle end, rather than a tapered pointed end. Quality is likely to deteriorate within days. It's thought that the introduction of this species to North America was intentional, as people wanted a flower that reminded them of their old homes, and as it was used medicinally. T. officinale is considered a weedy species, especially in lawns and along roadsides, but it is sometimes used as a medical herb and in food preparation. Read more about drying seeds and using desiccants under the tab “Food Harvest, Cleaning and Storage.”. They are in the genus Taraxacum. in height. From a distance, people sometimes mistake the many species of hawkbits for dandelions. Key below from From Samuel Thayer’s in Nature’s Garden: A Guide to Identifying, Harvesting and Preparing Edible Wild Plants, used with permission. Nevertheless, look for the familiar yellow flower heads displaying closely packed florets (tiny flowers). Basal leaves borne on long petioles roughly equal to or longer than the blade; blade widens abruptly from the petiole. It is a weed of perennial horticultural crops and gardens and may also be a problem in some annual crops, particularly where reduced tillage is practiced. Common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) has many names including blowball, faceclock, dumble-dor (Newfoundland) and pissenlit (Québec). Unroll and transfer the damp greens to storage. Seeds, greens and flowers are all utilized by wildlife. Canning jars and lids work well. Taraxacum F.H. See the E-Flora BC common dandelion page for further information. Erect hairs or spines absent from bottom of the midvein; leaves with curved auricles at base where attached to stalk; latex white: Sonchus (sow thistle). There are actually several species of dandelion. The seeded dandelion head is an incredible efficient means of population. General Description Commonly known as dandelion, Taraxacum officinale has many culinary and medicinal uses, despite being generally regarded as a weed. Martin, A.C., Zim, H.S., Nelson, A.L. A dandelion is a flower. Also, chickory (Cichorium spp.) In China, the flowers, leaves, root, and seed heads of either the common dandelion or from an Oriental species (T. mongolicum). The radially symmetrical flowerhead of the common dandelion is bright yellow and singularly arranged atop the terminal shoot of … You may get longer quality by adding with a product that reduces free ethylene gas in the refrigerator. Dandelion is the common name for it. It is native to Canada and the western US. They have a toothy appearance and can be between 6 to 8 inches long. Young leaves are rounder with less jagged teeth, older leaves are very jagged with deep indentations—that difference in contour related to age can lead to confusion. U.S. Weed Information; Taraxacum officinale . dandelion blooming its little heart out "dandelion propagating it's little heart out" Some may think I'm crazy, but I think the dandelion seedhead is a thing of beauty. There are around 30 species of dandelion that can be found all over the world. I’m sure you can feed those safely to animals, but they are not native greens. When used alone, add a nonionic surfactant at 0.2% by volume. Dandelion inhabits different habitats that provide enough sunlight: meadows, grasslands, edges of the forests, gardens and lawns. faceclock. Digital Atlas of the Virginia Flora (http://www.vaplantatlas.org). The perennial dandelion grows freely wherever it can find a bit of earth and a place in the sun. Click on the following link for the nutrition fact labels for raw dandelion greens: calories, vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates, fats and fatty acids and other nutrients from the nutritional search engine www.SkipThePie.org. But identification solely off the leaf with no flower present can be more difficult. Thayer, S. (2010). Be aware that grocery stores are starting to stock “Italian dandelion” greens. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is a common weed with edible leaves, which thrives in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 3 through 9. Dandelion is a persistent, perennial weed of lawns, borders and hard surfaces. Asteraceae or Compositae (commonly referred to as the aster, daisy, composite, or sunflower family), is a very large and widespread family of flowering plants (Angiospermae).. The most common dandelion is Taraxacum officinale. The stalk or stem (peduncle) below the flower rises from a rosette of leaves at ground level. Dandelion's nutritive and medicinal qualities have been known for centuries. Green leaves can be harvested at anytime spring to fall, but are tastier and less fibrous when young and small in late spring. The taproot can be boiled and eaten or dried and ground as a base for a hot drink. • Red-seeded Dandelion (Taraxacum erythrospermum) Flowers: Spring, Summer, Autumn; Yellow; 7 or more parts (petals) Habitat: Fields and Open Areas Edible: The roots are edible, when dried and used as a coffee substitute. The green bracts underneath the sepals and flower head fold downward (recurved) like a jester’s collar. Dandelions do have look-alikes that can be difficult to distinguish, like Cat’s Ear and Hawkweeds, but thankfully none of the look-alikes are poisonous, so if you inadvertently harvest one it shouldn’t be a problem. Songbird Diet Index. ... common dandelion Legal Status. The word dandelion is derived from the likeness of the common dandelion leaves and teeth to those of a lion. There are no threatened or endangered dandelion species in the eastern half of the United States. But more than any other flower, dandelion flower petals are eaten by 12 known species of mostly birds. Dandelion taxonomy is currently unresolved and complicated by issues such as hybridization; horned dandelion (T. ceratophorum) is a complex of native species, while red-seeded dandelion (T. laevigatum) is an introduced species with deeply divided lobes along the length of its leaves. Common Dandelion Species Description These plants are from foreign areas (those that occur outside of North America north of Mexico) that have been released intentionally or unintentionally. The Common Dandelion is actually a variety of forms or 'microspecies' and there are also a number of other Dandelion species, so identification can be tricky. 6. Recognized by USDA PLANTS images and USDA Plants data. Here are some of the more common varieties of dandelion plants: Common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) is the familiar, bright yellow dandelion that pops up along … Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Clade: Tracheophytes Clade: Angiosperms Clade: Eudicots Clade: Asterids Order: Asterales Family: Asteraceae Subfamily: Cichorioideae Tribe: Cichorieae Subtribe: Crepidinae Genus: Taraxacum F. H. Wigg. TARAXACUM ALBIDUM . The dark green, narrow bracts are pointed and, below the base of the flower head, are reflexed against the length of the stem. Woodchuck (Groundhog) Marmota monax monax. Leaves toothed, lobed, or with wavy or irregular margins: all others, go to 2. When it comes to invasive plants, the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) isn’t exactly Kubla Khan.Rarely, if ever, will you see a Newsweek article covering the dandelion with the same “unstoppable horde” mentality we’ve come to expect from ink spent on more exotic and threatening species, such as the lionfish or wild pig -- and for good reason. Citation: Guenther, K. (2017, January 12) Common dandelion as wildlife food. Taraxacum officinale. But there are other look-alikes as well: Hawkweeds of the Hieracium genus, hawksbeards of the Crepis genus, dwarf dandelions of the Krigia genus, or hawkbits of the Leontodon genus. datasets have provided data to the NBN Atlas for this species aggregate. The dandelion flower opens to greet the morning and closes in the evening to go to sleep. Also see Dandelion … Cloud, MN. Wigg. I collect all my seed for the year right in that first, most substantial crop. Wearing a dust mask, put the screen over a large bowl and rub the fluff around in circles so the seed falls through. Read more about storing leafy greens at “Food Harvest, Cleaning and Storage.”. Dandelions can be found in bloom, scattered here and there throughout the growing season. Dandelion are a family of flowering plants that grow in many parts of the world. There are about 100 species of dandelion, and all are beneficial. Dandelions in Finland are known by the collective name Taraxacum officinale , but they should really be spoken about in plural form because they are so diverse, comprised of about 500 micro-species in Finland alone. The species is native to Europe and Asia but can be found worldwide in temperate climates (Berg, 2007). What is dandelion? Pull the stalk with the whole fully-open seed head through your hand and deposit the seeds and fluff inside a paper bag. Label the airtight container with the seed name, date of harvest and which animals it should be used for. We have two species in our area. To make sure I don’t pick a wrong species when I am hurrying along, I always look for the little telltale button bud of the flower in the center of the leaf rosette. Pony, Montana: Hops Press, LLC. Because dandelions reproduce without fertilization, innumerable variants have arisen. In most parts of the world, dandelion is known as weed. National Wildlife Rehabilitators Association, St. The young leaves can be eaten raw or cooked. The Common Dandelion is common and widespread throughout the UK, Ireland a much of Europe. Common Types of Dandelion Plants. Wait 4 weeks to reseed. When in seed the common dandelion has a unique downy-white, rounded head that is sensitive to physical disturbance. Keep container in the vegetable drawer of the refrigerator. The basal leaves often vary in size, ranging from 5-40 cm. Label the bag with the plant name and which animals it should be used for. Dandelion is a common meadow herb of the Asteraceae or sunflower family.. Botanists say that some species of dandelion are native to North America. On cat’s ear the bracts grow upward in plane with the sepals and ray flowers. Common Dandelion Species Description These plants are from foreign areas (those that occur outside of North America north of Mexico) that have been released intentionally or unintentionally. Contrary to popular belief, this is a beneficial plant to have. What makes dandelion leaves even more confusing to identify is that the leaf shape changes somewhat as the plant matures. Dandelion can be found throughout the growing season, but these are the best dates for mass harvest. Midrib cross-section forms a low, rounded hump on leaf underside: Taraxacum (dandelion), Cichorium (Chicory), or Hypochaeris (Cat’s ear), go to 4. The common dandelion is actually a variety of forms or 'microspecies' and there are also a number of other dandelion species, so identification can be tricky. The dandelion flower opens to greet the morning and closes in the evening to go to sleep.. The tooth of the lion refers to the dandelion’s leaves which are serrated and look much like teeth. And another thing. Of … [Web log post.] The name “dandelion” comes from the French “dent de lion” – lion’s tooth, which refers to theserrated leaves. Habitat. The leaf rib in cross-section is rounded, no edge to it. To differentiate dandelion look-alikes by leaf and stem only, see a wonderfully helpful key written by expert forager Samuel Thayer under the leaf section of this monograph. Refrigeration and freezing works well, but allow container to warm to room temperature before opening. For storage longer than one week, use a rigid, lidded, airtight container. Well known species of dandelions are native to Eurasia and were probably brought to North America on the Mayflower as a crop and medicine.